YU‘ANNIS

Spoken Coptic Language

SPOKEN COPTIC LANGUAGE Coptic was the spoken language of ancient Egypt until the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century. It was recorded first in the hieroglyphic (sacred) script, the earliest form of Egyptian pictorial writing, and succeeded by the hieratic (priestly), which was the simplified running script, and the demotic (from “demos,” meaning …

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Translation Of Bishop

TRANSLATION OF BISHOP The transference of a bishop from the see for which he was consecrated to some other diocese. This practice is forbidden by Canon 15 of the Council of NICAEA (325), which states: “On account of the great disturbance and discords that occur, it is decreed that the custom prevailing in certain places …

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Ethiopian Church Autocephaly

ETHIOPIAN CHURCH AUTOCEPHALY In the middle of the fourth century, Saint ATHANASIUS, the twentieth patriarch of Alexandria, appointed Frumentius (Salama I) to be the first primate (ABUN) of Ethiopia. From then until the nineteenth century, negotiations between the two churches were generally restricted to Ethiopian requests for a new abun to be consecrated and sent …

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Abu Al-Muna

ABU AL-MUNA A deacon (1663-1679). In 1663, while in Cairo, Johann Michael VANSLEB had copied for the Royal Library in Paris the large anthology of the Coptic canonical collection compiled by the priest Marcarius, a monk of the monastery of Saint John Colobos (Graf, Vol. 1, pp. 560-63). This anthology was contained in two fine …

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Abd Al-Masih

ABD AL-MASIH A manuscript of the Coptic Patriarchate, Cairo (Theology 290; Graf, no. 533; Simaykah, no. 333) contains a collection of 149 poems in simple literary Arabic on moral and religious subjects, composed by Anba Bistawrah, known as al-Hariri (Graf, 1934, Vol. 4, p. 133). It was copied by Ibrahim ibn Sulayman al-Najjar al-Miri in …

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