World War I

Jean Cledat

JEAN CLEDAT (Périgueux, France, 7 May 1872-Bouch [Dordogne], France, 29 July 1943), French Egyptologist and Coptologist. He acquired a solid grounding in Paris (including the Ecole des Beaux Arts) and, in 1898 and 1899, published his first studies in Egyptology and Coptology that dealt with both the texts and the archaeology. Clédat arrived in Egypt …

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Wadi Sarjah

WADI SARJAH A fairly narrow valley about 220 yards (200 m) wide that opens up about a mile (1.5 km) from the cultivable lands and 5 miles (8 km) south of Dayr al-Balay’zah. It is about a mile (1.5 km) long, but the inhabitants developed only its mouth. There are some quarries equipped as a …

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Timotheos I

TIMOTHEOS I The Coptic archbishop of Jerusalem (1899-1925). He was born in Zaqaziq in 1865 with the name Michael. He studied Arabic and French at the school of the Frères de la Salle. He was ordained a monk in the Monastery of Saint Antony (DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS) in 1885. When Basilios II, archbishop of Jerusalem, …

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Sa‘D Zaghlul

SA‘D ZAGHLUL (1858-1927) A statesman and one of the best-known leaders in the modern history of Egypt. Born at Ibyanah in the province of Gharbiyyah, he enrolled at al-Azhar University and became a disciple and follower of Shaykh Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, the Islamic polemical thinker. He was also in contact with Shaykh Muhammad ‘Abdu, whose …

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Personal Status Law

PERSONAL STATUS LAW The term “personal status” was adopted during the period of Egyptian legal reform in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, to categorize certain laws governing the personal, not property, matters of individuals in accordance with their own respective religions. This concept became an established part of Egyptian legislation. Historical Background The …

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Political Thought In Modern Egypt

POLITICAL THOUGHT IN MODERN EGYPT The bases of Egyptian thought had remained fundamentally Arab- Islamic until its roots extended themselves into the modern soil of European culture throughout the nineteenth century. Eventually, Egyptian political thought crystallized into modern concepts and terms. However, other influences also played an important role. Most sources agree that the French …

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Coptic Press

COPTIC PRESS Major Organs Copts began publishing religious, intellectual, and political periodicals in the second half of the nineteenth century. Some journals and newspapers were written to appeal to Muslims as well as Christians, while others focused more narrowly on communal and church affairs. The heyday of such publications was the seventy-five years between the …

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Fis, Saint

FIS, SAINT An extensive life of this saint and an account of several of his miracles can be found in two manuscripts of Coptic origin. The Life of Abu Fis (National Library, Paris, Arabe 4775, fols. 179v-96v, ninth century) was copied by the Muslim Muhammad ‘Izzat, as commissioned by E. Amélineau. Since this text is …

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