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Raithou (Al-Rayah)

RAITHOU (al-Rayah) Ancient town, which has disappeared, 5 miles (8 km) south of al-Tur, a small town on the west coast of the southern Sinai Peninsula. The information collected there by Porphyry Ouspensky in 1850 places al-Rayah, or at least its ruins, on the edge of the sea, two hours’ march south of al-Tur (see …

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Pharan

PHARAN (Faran) An oasis in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, a little to the north of the town of al-Tur (RAITHOU) and to the west of the Greek monastery of Saint Catherine. Netra or Nitira, a hermit in Sinai, became bishop of Pharan at the end of the fourth century or the beginning of …

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Qus

QUS A town known in the era of the pharaohs as Ksa or Ksi. From the Greek period onward (third century B.C.) it was known as Apollinopolis Parva. It evolved by taking advantage of the activities of QIFT, which the Greek kings had made the starting point for roads linking the Nile Valley and the …

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Mahallat Minuf

MAHALLAT MINUF A town in the Egyptian Delta about 7 miles (11 km) north of Tanta, in the Gharbiyyah province. The town was previously known in Arabic as Minuf al-Sufla, in Greek as Onouphis kato, and in Coptic as panouf qat (Panouf khat). Though ancient and medieval sources preserve no descriptions or accounts of Christians, …

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Al-Mansurah

AL-MANSURAH A city located in the Egyptian Delta about 15 miles (24 km) northeast of al-Mahallah al-Kubra in the Daqahliyyah province. Al-Malik al-Kamil founded al-Mansurah in 1218/1219 when he was fighting the Crusaders in Dumyat (Maspero and Wiet, 1919, p. 198). Though Christianity is not attested in the city until the seventeenth century, al-Mansurah takes …

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Mareotis

MAREOTIS The Greek name of an ancient city, a district, and a lake in Egypt. The ruins of the ancient city lie in Kom al-Idris about 2.5 miles (4 km) north of al-Hawwariyyah and some 20 miles (32 km) southwest of The name of the modern town and its lake, just below Alexandria, is Maryut. …

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Minya

MINYA A city located on the west bank of the Nile in Middle Egypt and the capital of the province of Minya. The city was known in Coptic as tmwn/ (Tmone). Before the late nineteenth century, Minya was known in Arabic as Bani Khasib after al-Khasib ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid, the financial administrator of Harun al-Rashid. …

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Naqizah

NAQIZAH A town in the province of Gharbiyyah. ABU AL- MAKARIM, in his description of the churches and monasteries of Lower Egypt, situates at Naqzah a monastery, the lofty buildings of which could be seen from Damietta. He indicates its position as “near the salt sea, to the east of Nastarawah [al-Burullus].” He adds that …

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