Valentinus

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century to Its Jar Tomb in the Upper Egyptian Town of Nag’ Hammadi Introduction The aim of this study is to try to interpret the fate of Gnosticism in Egypt through a simple investigation of places where texts were found and the historical …

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Gnosticism Bibliography

GNOSTICISM BIBLIOGRAPHY Attridge, Harold W., ed. Nag Hammadi Codex I (The Jung Codex). Nag Hammadi Studies 22-23. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1985. Bohlig, Alexander, and Frederik Wisse, eds. Nag Hammadi Codices III, 2 and IV, 2: The Gospel of the Egyptians (The Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit). Nag Hammadi Studie, 4. Leiden: E. …

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Alexandria

ALEXANDRIA Founded in 331 b.c. by Alexander the Great at the western end of the Nile Delta. An Egyptian town, Rakote, already existed there on the shore and was a fishermen’s resort. From its very beginning, Alexandria developed rapidly into one of the world’s great cities. The city replaced Memphis as the capital of Egypt …

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Basilides

BASILIDES A Christian Gnostic teacher who was active in Alexandria in the 130s and probably before that. He is reported by Irenaeus to have brought his heresy from Antioch to Alexandria. An elaborate cosmogonic myth is attributed to him by Irenaeus, and a rather different one by Hippolytus. Irenaeus also attributes to him a doctrine …

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Heracleon

HERACLEON A pupil of Valentinus the Gnostic who was active during the mid-second century. He was referred to by Clement of Alexandria as “the most esteemed member of the school of Valentinus.” He wrote an important commentary on the Gospel of John that was excerpted by Origen in his own commentary on John. Although he …

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Valentinus

VALENTINUS A Christian Gnostic teacher active in Alexandria in the early second century. Born in the Egyptian Delta, he was educated in Alexandria. He is reported by Irenaeus to have adapted the teachings of the Gnostic sect in creating his own system, which conformed to a greater degree to traditional Christian doctrine. Around 140 he …

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Gnosticism In Egypt

GNOSTICISM IN EGYPT The term “Gnosticism” was first coined in the 17th century to refer to an early Christian heresy described by the Church Father Irenaeus of Lyon in his five volumes Against Heresies (ca. 185). Historians of religions use the term to refer to a religion that probably developed around the turn of the …

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Theodotus

THEODOTUS A pupil of Valentinus the Gnostic who was active during the mid-second century. Some of his writings were excerpted by Clement of Alexandria, including an account of the Valentinian myth close to that of another Valentinian teacher, Ptolemy. Nothing is known of his life, but it is likely that Theodotus taught in Alexandria. GAWDAT …

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