Valens

Athanasius I

ATHANASIUS I The Apostolic Saint, twentieth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (326-373). Athanasius’ life has been treated in detail by numerous authors. These sources can be categorized as follows: (1) the writings of Athanasius himself, which should be considered the most authentic of the sources. These include his historical tracts, encyclicals, an apology …

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Anachoresis

ANACHORESIS The step by which an ascetic, following the example of Saint ANTONY, leaves his village “to withdraw” (Greek, anachorein) to the desert and thus becomes an ANCHORITE (anachoretes). But the oldest attestations of the word in Egypt relate to a phenomenon of a social character. Crushed by excessive fiscal burdens, peasants fled from their …

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Anomoeans

ANOMOEANS The name given to the radical group of Arians who emerged about 356 under the leadership of Eunomius, bishop of Cyzicus (360-364), and the “godless” deacon Aetius. It is based on the Greek word anomoios (unlike), referring to the relationship between the Father and Son within the Godhead. The Son was stated to be …

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Cyril Of Jerusalem

CYRIL OF JERUSALEM Bishop of Jerusalem (c. 350-387) due to the efforts of the Arianite faction. However, because his doctrine was substantially anti-Arian, he was repeatedly exiled by the Arian emperors Constantius (357-362) and Valens (367-378). The Egyptian tradition recognized him as orthodox and regarded his character and work with favor. Consequently, the Copts accorded …

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Peter II

PETER II saint and twenty-first patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (373-380). Peter was designated by his formidable predecessor ATHANASIUS to succeed him on the throne of Alexandria. At the time of Athanasius’ death, Peter was already an old man, known for his piety and loyalty to the principles of Athanasian theology. However, it …

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Philip Of Anatolia

PHILIP OF ANATOLIA The Coptic History of the Church contains the following story of Philip of Anatolia, a bishop (ed. Orlandi, 1970, Vol. 2, pp. 16-17). He observed that the soldiers in the command headquarters at Damascus were pagans and heretics, and that whenever they leveled taxes against the Christians, they persecuted the Christians unjustly. …

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Prefect (Praefectus Aegypti, Eparchos Aigyptou)

PREFECT (praefectus Aegypti, eparchos Aigyptou) After Diocletian’s reforms, Egypt was divided into three provinces (c. A.D. 297), and the supreme command over the enlarged army forces in the country was concentrated in the hands of a single dux, “general” (in 308/309 at the latest). Consequently, the position of the prefect as a viceroy (Tacitus Annales, …

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Homoeans

HOMOEANS A group forming the middle ground of the anti-Nicene and anti-Athanasian party in the last decade of the reign of Emperor Constantius II (337-361); their views came closest to those of the emperor. Under their leader, ACACIUS OF CAESAREA, they held that Christ was “like God.” They repudiated all reference to ousia (“substance”) in …

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