Umayyads

Coptic Toponymy

COPTIC TOPONYMY The study of ancient place-names is one of the most interesting domains of historical research, since the names of hamlets, villages, and towns of the past often give brief but valuable indications, usually absent from historical records, about the creation of those urban centers and the reasons for their founding, whether economic, political, …

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History Bibliography

HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, William Y. Nubia, Corridor to Africa. Princeton, N.J.: Allen Lane, 1977. Atiya, Aziz Suryal. “Ahl al-Dhimmah.” In CE, vol. 1, 72ff. ———. “Alexandria, Historic Churches in.” In CE, vol. 1, 92-95. ———. “Ayyubid Dynasty and the Copts.” In CE, vol. 1, 314ff. ———. “Eusebius of Caesarea.” In CE, vol. 4, 1070ff. ———. …

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Arab Conquest Of Egypt

ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT The conquest, under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, was the last of the rapid series of victories in the years A.H. 13-19/A.D. 635-640 that had led the Arabs to overthrow the weakened Byzantine provinces of the Near East. The conquest of Egypt marked the virtual end of a rapid period of expansion, since …

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kha’il I

KHA’IL I The forty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (744-767). Kha’il, or Michael, was a simple monk and presbyter of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR) in WADI AL-NATRUN. When THEODORUS, his predecessor, died, the congregating bishops together with the clergy of Alexandria and the archons of the Coptic community selected …

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Copts Under The Umayyads

COPTS UNDER THE UMAYYADS The Umayyads (661-750), named after the Banu Umayyah, a merchant family of Mecca, following a civil war established the first dynasty to rule the Islamic world. Under Umayyad rule the Islamic empire attained its greatest extent, reaching as far as France in the west and India in the east. The Umayyads …

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Archive Of Basilios

ARCHIVE OF BASILIOS The archive of Basilios, pagarch of Aphrodito in the time of Governor Qurrah ibn Sharik (698-722), is the largest and most notable of the collections of the early Arab period. Found at Kom Ishqaw in 1901, the papyri were acquired mainly by the British Museum, though substantial collections are in Paris (the …

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Bashmuric Revolts

BASHMURIC REVOLTS In the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries Copts revolted a number of times against the Arabic administration in different parts of Egypt and were rapidly crushed. Only in the Bashmuric region (see BASHMUR, AL-) were Copts able to resist for a relatively long period against repeated attacks of the Arabic army by land …

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Economic Activities Of Monasteries

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF MONASTERIES Despite schisms, persecutions, occasional devastation by the barbarians, and the Persian and Arab conquests in 619 and 641, respectively, the history of the Egyptian monasteries from the fourth to the eighth centuries constitutes a whole. The period was one of expansion and material prosperity. Various categories of sources—literary, papyrological, and archaeological—indicate …

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