Timothy

Melchites And Copts

MELCHITES AND COPTS Melchites (almost all Greeks) and Copts (native Egyptians) lived in relative tolerance until the Council of CHALCEDON (451), when Rome and Constantinople, under the cloak of theological problems, inflicted the first sharp defeat sustained by the Copts in the ecumenical field. The humiliation, deposition, and exile of the native Egyptian DIOSCORUS I …

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Martyrs, Coptic

MARTYRS, COPTIC The souls recognized in Egypt who suffered persecution and died for their faith. The majority of martyrs belong to the period of Roman persecutions from the time of Nero in the mid-first century to the time of Diocletian in the early fourth century. It is, of course, impossible to assemble the names of …

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Michael The Archangel, Saint

MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL, SAINT In Coptic Christian tradition, Saint Michael the Archangel holds an important place, comparable to that of the Virgin Mary. Of the Eastern churches, only the Copts and the Ethiopians have developed devotion to the archangel to the same degree. Among the archangels, Michael is explicitly named in the Old Testament (Dn. …

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Mummification

MUMMIFICATION There is evidence for mummification in Egypt from the beginning of historical times. Herodotus and Diodorus report on the different ways of mummifying. The practice arose from the idea that preservation of bodily integrity is the presupposition for life after death. This idea is evidently also the reason for statements in martyr legends of …

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Oktokaidekaton

OKTOKAIDEKATON One of the monasteries of the coastal strip that separates the sea from the western tongue of Lake Mareotis to the west of Alexandria. The Oktokaidekaton is so called from its location in the neighborhood of the eighteenth milestone from Alexandria. Its site has not been located, but the Life of Saint THEODORA characterizes …

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Third Council Of Ephesus

THIRD COUNCIL OF EPHESUS A large synod of bishops from the provinces of Asia Minor, Ephesus III was presided over by TIMOTHY II AELURUS in 476, on his way from Constantinople to Alexandria, during the latter stages of the usurpation of Basiliscus (475-476). The convening of the synod was Timothy’s final effort to gain the …

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The Enaton

THE ENATON One of the chief monastic centers of Byzantine and medieval Egypt, near Alexandria. It was called in Arabic Dayr al-Zujaj (Monastery of Glass) or Dayr al-Zajjaj (Monastery of the Glass Maker). Although the whole complex of monasteries at Enaton was completely ruined at the end of the Middle Ages, numerous Greek and Oriental …

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Deaconess

DEACONESS A woman in charge of the sick and the poor of her own sex. In the early church, deaconesses were recognized as a distinct order of women who were vowed to perpetual chastity. They were, nevertheless, allowed to perform only certain duties in the care of women, and no sacerdotal services in the church. …

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