Synod

Apollinarianism

APOLLINARIANISM Apollinarianism is the dogma instituted by Apollinarius of Laodicea. He was a great friend of Athanasius of Alexandria and rendered him great service, defending orthodoxy against Arianism. But under the influence of Arianism, Apollinarius denied the full human nature of Christ by promulgating that the divine Logos took the place of the nous. Apollinarianism …

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Homoeans

HOMOEANS In the controversy between Athanasius and the Arians, a group tried to find a middle solution. Instead of homoousios (from the same substance), which occurred more than 25 times in the Apology against Apollinarius, this group under Acacius of Caesarea preferred the term homeousios, or “like God.” They played an important role in the …

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Al-Safi Ibn Al-‘Assal (?-Ca. 1265)

AL-SAFI IBN AL-‘ASSAL (?-ca. 1265) A Canonist, theologian, apologist. The reputation of al-Safi Abu al-Fada’il Majid ibn al-‘Assal has long rested on his magisterial canonical collection, the Nomocanon of 1238 commonly known even today as al-Majmu‘ al-Safawi (al- Safi’s Compilation); this has allowed brief characterizations of the Awlad al-‘Assal to refer to the accomplishments of …

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Bulus Al-Bushi (?-Ca. 1250)

BULUS AL-BUSHI (?-ca. 1250) A Bishop, theologian. Bulus al-Bushi was a skilled theologian who contributed much to the dawning of the 13th-century golden age of Copto-Arabic literature. Little is known of his life before 1216, when after the death of Patriarch John VI the scholarly monk Bulus quickly became one of the two leading candidates …

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Gabriel V (?-1427)

GABRIEL V (?-1427) A Patriarch (88th, 1409-1427), liturgical reformer. Gabriel V was patriarch during a period of political instability, economic difficulties, and repeated outbreaks of plague, during which the Coptic community, like other dhimmi communities in Egypt, was regularly scapegoated and shaken down for funds. The Muslim historian al-Maqrizi reports that Gabriel was obliged to …

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Dioscorus I

DIOSCORUS I A Saint and patriarch. He was the 25th patriarch of Alexandria (446-454). Our best reference about his life is the Coptic version of the History of the Patriarchs. He was a disciple of Cyril of Alexandria and a vigorous opponent of Nestorian doctrines. Eutyches also argued against the Nestorian parties but he was …

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Council Of Gangra (Ca. 340)

COUNCIL OF GANGRA (ca. 340) The Council of Gangra was a local synod and, accordingly, the Coptic Church did not take part in its discussion. This council condemned extreme ascetical practices such as the condemnation of marriage, deprivation of eating meat, and so on. Although medieval sources attest that the decisions resulting from this council …

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Council Of Neocaesarea

COUNCIL OF NEOCAESAREA This synod took place between 313 and 321, after the great persecution and before Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. The council issued 15 canons, dealing with disciplinary measures for the clergy and moral questions. Other canons deal with the catechumenate, with the age for ordination to the priesthood …

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