SUBHI Y. LABIB

Semi-Arians

SEMI-ARIANS A group drawn from among Arian theologians that was founded by Basil of Ancyra around 356. Its members espoused a doctrine of the sonship of Jesus that stood somewhere between the orthodox and the Arian (see ARIANISM) principles. They adopted the HOMOIOUSION theology and leaned toward orthodoxy. Saint ATHANASIUS returned to Alexandria in 362 …

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Christodoulus

CHRISTODOULUS The sixty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1047-1077). Christodoulus, whose original name as a monk of the ENATON, west of Alexandria, was Theodore, was a native of the village of Burah, but his date of birth is unknown. The first known event in his life concerns his castrating himself. This happened when …

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Simon I

SIMON I A saint and forty-second patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (689-701). His nomination came at a difficult time. His predecessor, ISAAC, had died in the midst of the fury arising from his meddling in the conflict between Ethiopia and Nubia without consulting the Umayyad governor of Egypt, ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Marwan. In …

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Simon II

SIMON II A Saint and fifty-first patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (830). Simon was a deacon and monk from Alexandria. His life is briefly recorded in the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS. He was a close disciple of JACOB, his predecessor, and his sanctity was known to the clergy and archons of the city. …

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Cosmas III (The Patriarch)

COSMAS III The fifty-eighth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (920-932). Cosmas apparently succeeded GABRIEL I without complications about his selection. His life is treated very briefly in the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS, despite his relatively long reign of twelve years. Nothing on his internal relations with the Islamic administration is cited in his …

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Cosmas I

COSMAS I The forty-fourth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (730-731) (feast day: 30 Ba’unah). He was a native of the town of Bana, near Samannud in the Gharbiyyah Province. Little is known about his secular life before he took the monastic vow in the wilderness of Anba Maqar. Cosmas had a monastic life …

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CYRIL III IBN LAQLAQ

CYRIL III IBN LAQLAQ The seventy-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1235-1243). Cyril, known as Ibn Laqlaq before his investiture, was called Dawud ibn Yuhanna ibn Laqlaq al-Fayyumi, indicating that he was originally a native of the city of al-Fayyum in Upper Egypt. His date of birth is unknown, and his ascension to …

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CYRIL II

CYRIL II The sixty-seventh patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1078-1092). Cyril was a monk of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR), and his original name was George (Jirja). Nothing is known about his secular life or his date of birth beyond the fact that he was a native of the province …

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Zacharias

ZACHARIAS The sixty-fourth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1004-1032). Zacharias was a contemporary of the rulers of Egypt al-HAKIM BI-AMR ALLAH (996-1021) and al-Zahir Abu al- Hasan ‘Ali (1021-1035). He was a poor priest in Alexandria, and no one knew much about him. His selection occurred in rather unusual circumstances. When the bishops …

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