sovereign

Christodoulus

CHRISTODOULUS The sixty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1047-1077). Christodoulus, whose original name as a monk of the ENATON, west of Alexandria, was Theodore, was a native of the village of Burah, but his date of birth is unknown. The first known event in his life concerns his castrating himself. This happened when …

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Cosmas III (The Patriarch)

COSMAS III The fifty-eighth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (920-932). Cosmas apparently succeeded GABRIEL I without complications about his selection. His life is treated very briefly in the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS, despite his relatively long reign of twelve years. Nothing on his internal relations with the Islamic administration is cited in his …

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Feasts Of The Theotokos

FEASTS OF THE THEOTOKOS The high reverence for the Virgin Mary by the Copts is best expressed in the Coptic SYNAXARION where she is described as “the sovereign of the universe, the queen of all womanhood, through whom we have grace.” Thus the Copts celebrate seven feasts for her. Dates are here given according to …

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General Ya‘Qub (1745-1801)

GENERAL YA‘QUB (1745-1801) Financial commissioner, then military leader, a mu‘allim become a general, Ya‘qub died young, and we have little information about his remarkable career. His role is thus debated: collaborator in the French occupation of Egypt, or pioneer of national independence? His contemporary al-Jabarti— who was a member of the diwan that collaborated with …

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Benjamin II

BENJAMIN II The eighty-second patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1327-1339). Benjamin’s life before taking the monastic vow is utterly unknown beyond the fact mentioned by the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS that he was a native of the town of Dimiqrat south of Armant in Upper Egypt. Apparently his nomination was supported by a …

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Athanasius I

ATHANASIUS I The Apostolic Saint, twentieth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (326-373). Athanasius’ life has been treated in detail by numerous authors. These sources can be categorized as follows: (1) the writings of Athanasius himself, which should be considered the most authentic of the sources. These include his historical tracts, encyclicals, an apology …

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Coptic Education

COPTIC EDUCATION The origins of Coptic education may be traced to the period of the introduction of Christianity in the second half of the first century, when ancient educational traditions in the temples became colored with the doctrines and traditions of the new religion. According to Eusebius of Caesarea in his Historia Ecclesiastica, written in …

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