Shewa

Gabr’el (D. C. 1458)

GABR’EL (d. c. 1458) Gabr’el (Gabriel) arrived in Ethiopia in 1431 of the Ethiopian calendar (A.D. 1438-1439) with another metropolitan, Abuna Mika’el III. They had both been consecrated together by the Coptic patriarch JOHN XI (1427-1452) and were the successors of Abuna Bartalomewos. According to tradition, only one bishop could be appointed metropolitan of Ethiopia. …

Gabr’el (D. C. 1458) Read More »

Mika’el III (D. C. 1450s)

MIKA’EL III (d. c. 1450s) Contrary to the tradition which held that there could be only one metropolitan in Ethiopia, Mika’el (Michael) held this post simultaneously with Abuna Gabr’el. Succeeding Abuna Bartalomewos, these two metropolitans arrived in Ethiopia together. With the coadjutor bishop Yohannes, they formed a small group of Coptic prelates who, according to …

Mika’el III (D. C. 1450s) Read More »

Bartalomewos (D. C. 1435)

BARTALOMEWOS (d. c. 1435) Information about the episcopate of Bartalomewos (Bartholonew) is scant, even though it covered the lengthy period from the end of the reign of Negus Dawit I (1380-1412) though the entire reign of Negus Yeshaq (1413-1430). Successor to Salama II, Bartalomewos arrived in Ethiopia in 1391 of the Ethiopian calendar (A.D. 1398-1399), …

Bartalomewos (D. C. 1435) Read More »

Menelik II (1844-1913)

MENELIK II (1844-1913) The emperor of Ethiopia. From 1865 to 1889, he was king of Shewa (Sawa), and from 1889 to 1913, emperor of Ethiopia. He was the last Ethiopian sovereign to expand the empire by conquest and he enlarged it to about three times the original size of the Christian core area. He also …

Menelik II (1844-1913) Read More »

Metropolitan Sees

METROPOLITAN SEES The ancient privileges of the See of Alexandria, as confirmed by the sixth canon of the Council of NICAEA (325), placed the provinces of Egypt, Libya, and the Pentapolis in Cyrenaica under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Alexandria, although these provinces had their own metropolitans. Ancient and Medieval Times The Metropolitan See …

Metropolitan Sees Read More »

Ethiopian Church Autocephaly

ETHIOPIAN CHURCH AUTOCEPHALY In the middle of the fourth century, Saint ATHANASIUS, the twentieth patriarch of Alexandria, appointed Frumentius (Salama I) to be the first primate (ABUN) of Ethiopia. From then until the nineteenth century, negotiations between the two churches were generally restricted to Ethiopian requests for a new abun to be consecrated and sent …

Ethiopian Church Autocephaly Read More »

Ethiopian Monasticism

ETHIOPIAN MONASTICISM Perhaps the most important aspect of Ethiopian Christianity is its monasticism. Introduced into the country probably at the time when Christianity itself was first preached, its centers, the monasteries, have set the rule of conduct for the domestic and foreign policy of the Christian kingdom up to the twentieth century. The monks were …

Ethiopian Monasticism Read More »

Ethiopian Heresies And Theological Controversies

ETHIOPIAN HERESIES AND THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES Although isolated from the Christian world until the twentieth century, Ethiopia has had knowledge, and even followers, of the major heresies that caused schism and created ecclesiastical minorities in the early history of the Christian church. A letter from the emperor Constantius II (337-361) (Athanasius,1857, cols. 636-37) shows a reasonable …

Ethiopian Heresies And Theological Controversies Read More »

Eccage

ECCAGE The title and office of the eccage (high church dignitary) have been of national importance in Ethiopia for several centuries. Insofar as the ABUN was alien to the language and culture of the country, it was necessary for an Ethiopian dignitary to be appointed as chief administrator of the church. The Nebura’ed of Axum …

Eccage Read More »