shards

Wadi Shaykh ‘Ali

WADI SHAYKH ‘ALI A rather narrow and inaccessible ravine running roughly north-south into the Dishna plain in the area of Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt; it apparently was named after the nearby village of Shaykh ‘Ali. Opening off the northwestern perimeter of the desert and flanked by the Jabal al-Tarif to the west and the …

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Kellia

KELLIA History of the Site The Kellia is one of the most important and most celebrated monastic groupings in Lower Egypt. Its location long remained uncertain. In 1935 Omar Toussoun wrongly believed he had discovered its ruins near the northwest extremity of the Wadi al- Natrun. It was the exact location of the ancient Nitria …

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Papyrus Collections

PAPYRUS COLLECTIONS Since the seventeenth-century scholars and travelers to Egypt have brought manuscripts to Europe. The papyri, whether they came to light in spectacular finds or as individual discoveries, whether they were uncovered in scientific excavations or through the diggings of thieves, went into papyrus collections, either directly or through dealers (see PAPYRUS DISCOVERIES). Not …

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Graffiti

GRAFFITI An inscription that is scratched, particularly on walls but also on vessels and clay shards. We find them alongside inscriptions that were written with different colored inks on the walls of monasteries and settlements or worked into rocks or stelae. Since the older publications mostly do not distinguish between graffiti and inscriptions, both are …

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Ostracon

OSTRACON In the Hellenic period a shard or an animal’s shoulder blade. It was employed in a city-state’s assembly when a vote of ostracism was taken, and was customarily the writing material for nonliterary documents, particularly those of an economic character. In the later Roman and Byzantine eras, in Egypt the ostracon came to be …

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Abgar, King Of Edessa

ABGAR A king of Edessa in the first half of the first century (it would seem between 4 B.C. and A.D. 50) and the subject of a Christian legend found for the first time in Eusebius (Historia ecclesiastica 1.13.5-22). According to this version, Abgar, being ill, writes a letter to Jesus asking him to visit …

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