INSCRIPTIONS Writing on long-lasting materials. Inscriptions, like texts written on papyrus (see PAPYROLOGY), are important primary sources of information about a society. In Egypt they appear on stone, plaster, clay, wood, metal, and textiles. They may be scratched, carved, engraved, stamped, painted or inked, or woven. Those written on clay sherds or limestone fragments are …

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Demetrius I

DEMETRIUS I The twelfth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (189-231). He succeeded JULIAN and was a contemporary of eight Roman emperors, from Commodus (180-192) to Alexander Severus (222-235), through the age of persecutions, which were particularly harsh in the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211). Until the time of Demetrius, the church had been …

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Dioscorus II

DIOSCORUS II The thirty-first patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (515-517). A nephew of TIMOTHY II Aelurus, Dioscorus II had a brief but dramatic reign. He was first installed under the auspices of the government authorities, but when this roused protests, he secured a more proper ecclesiastical enthronement. Nevertheless, riots followed in which the …

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AGNOETAE A name was given to those who attributed either ignorance (agnoia) to Christ relating to subjects such as the timing of the Day of Judgment (cf. Mk. 13:32) or, alternatively, a gradual ascension to knowledge and wisdom (cf. Lk. 2:52). In Alexandria, the issue grew out of the controversy between SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH and …

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AHNAS (Ihnas al Madinah, Ihnasyah al-Madinah, Byzantine Herakleopolis) Settlement on the site of pharaonic Nn-nswt, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Herakleopolis. The Coptic and Arabic names go back to Egyptian Hwt-nn-nswt, Hnn-nswt, the Greek name comes from the identification of Hrj-š.f (Herishef, Greek Harsaphes), the town’s ram-headed local deity, with Heracles (Herishef was also identified with …

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