Senate

ALEXANDRIANS

ALEXANDRIANS Among the active opponents of St. Stephen were ‘certain of them that were of the synagogue called the synagogue … of the Alexandrians’ (Ἀλεξανδρέων, Ac 6:9). Grammatically the sentence is not in good form, and admits of a variety of interpretations. Some exegetes (Calvin, Bengel, O. Holtzmann, Rendall) assume that the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, …

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ACHAIA

ACHAIA Achaia (Ἀχαΐα) was, in the classical period, merely a strip of fertile coast-land stretching along the south of the Gulf of Corinth, from the river Larisus, which separated it from Elis, to the Sythas, which divided it from Sicyonia, while the higher mountains of Arcadia bounded it on the south. Its whole length was …

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Constantine I (288?-337)

CONSTANTINE I (288?-337) The Roman emperor who allowed freedom of worship in the empire, thus ending the persecution of Christians. Flavius Valerius Constantinus (Constantine) was born to Constantius Chlorus and Helena. When his father was appointed Caesar in 293, Constantine was sent to the court of DIOCLETIAN, the senior emperor, where he later distinguished himself …

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Codex Theodosianus

CODEX THEODOSIANUS A Roman imperial law code, published on 15 February 438 on the authority of Emperor Theodosius II, with a covering constitution addressed to the pretorian prefect of the East (Novella Theodosiana I). It had been approved by the Western emperor, Valentinian III, during his stay in Constantinople in October 437 when he married …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN EMPERORS IN EGYPT Although Alexandria never became a “Second Rome,” the existence and, in some sense, the presence of the Roman emperor was a common and permanent experience for the inhabitants of Egypt. The head of the provincial administration, the prefect of Egypt, was the direct representative of the emperor. The importance and power …

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Justin II (D. 578)

JUSTIN II (d. 578) Byzantine emperor who lost territory in war and shifted from toleration of MONOPHYSITISM to persecution. Justin was a nephew of the emperor JUSTINIAN and was married to Sophia, the niece of Justinian’s wife, THEODORA I. He held the post of curophlates (palace administrator). When Justinian died in 565 the succession was …

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Julian The Apostate (332-363)

JULIAN THE APOSTATE (332-363) A roman emperor who attempted to restore the classical pantheon. Julian was born in Constantinople, son of Julius Constantius and Basilina. With his half-brother Gallus, he survived the massacre that claimed many of the relatives of Emperor Constantine I on 9 September 337, including their father and elder brother. Julian was, …

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Family Of Apion

FAMILY OF APION A wealthy landowners prominent in Egyptian imperial and public life in the first half of the sixth century. The earliest known member of the family, Apion I, held land around Herakleopolis Magna (see AHNAS AL-MADINAH) in 497 (Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1982; Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde 20.129). He was already prominent, having held …

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Diocletian

DIOCLETIAN A Roman emperor (full name, Valerius Diocletianus; also called Diocles) from 20 November 284 to May 305. He was born in 245 of humble parents in the province of Dalmatia. He enlisted in the army and gained administrative experience in minor posts in Gaul under Aurelian (270-275), and in 282 became governor of Moesia …

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