Second Council of CONSTANTINOPLE

Cosmas Indicopleustes

COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES The name given to an anonymous Nestorian author of the twelve-book Christian Topography, written a few years before the Second Council of CONSTANTINOPLE (553). Cosmas was an Egyptian merchant, probably from Alexandria, who plied his trade in Alexandria, the Red Sea port of Adulis (Sawakin), and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), calling at the island …

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Origen (185-Ca. 254)

ORIGEN (185-ca. 254) Theologian. Origen is the most controversial person in Christian history. He is considered by the Fathers of the Church, such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Pamphile, as being a saint, while other Fathers such as Epiphanius, Theophilus (Patriarch of Alexandria), and Shenute (or Dioscorus) considered him a heretic. In the sixth century, …

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Hypostatic Union

HYPOSTATIC UNION The orthodox doctrine on the relation of the divine and human in Christ. Henosis kath’ hypostasin was the term used by Saint CYRIL I, patriarch of Alexandria in the fifth century, to make clear beyond all argument the complete unity of the Divine Word and the flesh in Christ. For Cyril the Word …

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Monophysitism

MONOPHYSITISM The doctrine that the incarnate Christ is one Person and has one divine nature as opposed to the orthodox doctrine that he is one Person and has two natures, one human and one divine. The rift between the Monophysites, including the Coptic, Syrian, Ethiopian, and Armenian churches, and the Orthodox Church has divided Eastern …

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Origen

Origen General History Origen (185-255) was one of the greatest Christians who ever lived, and certainly among the greatest of Egyptian Christians. Only ATHANASIUS can rival him in stature among the sons of Christian Egypt. He was born of Christian parents at Alexandria and probably died at Tyre. In 202 his father, Leonidas, was martyred …

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Origenist Controversies

ORIGENIST CONTROVERSIES The controversies that flared up around certain doctrines propagated by, or attributed to, ORIGEN in his vast written heritage—most of which survives only in fragmentary form—must be studied as a minor aspect of his work rather than as central to the whole of it. Even though condemned by certain synods and general councils, …

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Immersion

IMMERSION It was ordained by Jesus Christ that water represents the visible sign of baptism: “Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God” (Jn. 3:5). In conformity with Christ’s teachings, the apostles used water in administering the sacrament through complete immersion. This practice has since been followed …

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Dumyat

DUMYAT A city in the northeastern part of the Nile Delta just west of Lake al-Manzalah. Dumyat was the seat of a bishop at least as early as 431 when Bishop Herakleides of Tamiathis/ Dumyat took part in the First Council of EPHESUS (Munier, 1943, p. 17). In 459 Bishop Elpidios of Tamiathis signed the …

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