Schism

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century

Egyptian Gnosticism from Its Cradle in the Alexandrian Quarters of the Second Century to Its Jar Tomb in the Upper Egyptian Town of Nag’ Hammadi Introduction The aim of this study is to try to interpret the fate of Gnosticism in Egypt through a simple investigation of places where texts were found and the historical …

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Monophysitism

MONOPHYSITISM This word is derivate from the Cyrillian statement, ‘One nature of the incarnated Word of God.” It is used to designate those who, in opposition to the two-natures doctrine of Chalcedon, confess the formula of St. Cyril, which has been adopted by the Coptic Church: ‘One Nature for the Word God incarnated.” Hence, Christ …

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Melitian Schism

MELITIAN SCHISM Melitius was the Bishop of Lycopolis (Assiut) during the patriarchate of Peter, the Seal of Martyrs (300-311). He opposed the patriarch of Alexandria on two issues. The first was the admission of the Lapsi (those who under torture deny Christ), and the second issue was the authority of the bishops to consecrate other …

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Patriarch Alexander I

PATRIARCH ALEXANDER I He was the 19th patriarch of the See of St. Mark (312-326). He succeeded Achillas in the year 312 a.d., just after the end of the great persecution. Alexander faced three problems during his episcopate. He was first troubled over the timing of the Easter observance by a schismatic faction led by …

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Filioque

FILIOQUE Latin, meaning “and [from] the son.” In the sixth century, Arian barbarians (Goth and Visigoth) invaded the western empire and introduced many heretical dogmas and expressions. In 589 a.d., the Council of Toledo included details in the Nicene Creed concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son in order …

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Hypostasis

HYPOSTASIS This word was known in classical Greek. It is composed of two parts: hypo meaning “under” and stasis meaning “setting.” In theology, it developed to mean reality, substance, nature, or essence. This word occurs 20 times in the Septuagint but only one of them can be regarded as theologically significant. At the beginning of …

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Council Of Chalcedon

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON After the death of the Emperor Theodosius II in 450, his sister Pulcheria married Marcian, who accordingly became emperor. The new imperial officials convoked a council at Chalcedon in order to see to the matters of the Eutychians and the Nestorians. As a result of this council, the Coptic patriarch Dioscorus was …

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