Salih

Alexandria

ALEXANDRIA Founded in 331 b.c. by Alexander the Great at the western end of the Nile Delta. An Egyptian town, Rakote, already existed there on the shore and was a fishermen’s resort. From its very beginning, Alexandria developed rapidly into one of the world’s great cities. The city replaced Memphis as the capital of Egypt …

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Fraction

FRACTION A liturgical prayer recited after the anaphora and prior to communion. The Fraction prayers are first attested in Serapion’s fourth century Euchologion and they are recited in many Eastern liturgies such as the Liturgy of Mark, Gregory, Basil, John Chrysostom, and James. In the printed edition of the Euchologion, there are 20 Fraction prayers, …

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Maqara (Active Before 1350)

MAQARA (active before 1350) A Monk, canonist. Maqara was a monk of the Monastery of St. John the Little in the Wadi al-Natrun who dedicated great energy to gathering the canons of the Coptic Orthodox Church—as well as materials from other ecclesial communities—into one great Arabic-language compendium. This compendium includes the canonical collections attributed to …

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Confession And Penitence

CONFESSION AND PENITENCE Confession is actually considered one of the sacraments of the Church, where the priest gives the absolution to the penitent. The Coptic Church believes that Christ gave this authority of loosening and binding to his disciples (Matt. 16:19). After his Resurrection, Christ also sent out his disciples, giving them the authority to …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE This entry consists of four parts. The first addresses the origins and development of the Arabic literature of the Copts. This is followed by introductions to three Copto-Arabic literary genres—hagiography, apocalyptic, and popular catechesis—for which texts are usually of anonymous authorship, and therefore unlikely to be otherwise addressed in a dictionary arranged largely …

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History Of The Churches And Monasteries Of Egypt (Late 12th-Early 13th C.)

HISTORY OF THE CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT (late 12th-early 13th c.) An important source for the history of the Coptic Church. The History of the Churches and Monasteries of Egypt is a remarkable collection of geographically arranged entries concerning churches and monasteries (primarily in Egypt, but with entries as far-flung as Abyssinia, Palestine, and …

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Christodoulos (?-1077). Patriarch (66th, 1046-1077)

CHRISTODOULOS (?-1077). Patriarch (66th, 1046-1077) The importance of Christodoulos (a monk of the Monastery of al-Baramous before his consecration as patriarch) to the history of Copto-Arabic literature may be seen from two sides. First, the events of his turbulent patriarchate are recounted by Mawhub ibn Mansur ibn Mufarrij in the first of two biographies that …

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Dayr Al-Fakhuri

DAYR AL-FAKHURI History The “Monastery of the Potter” (it is not known whence this appellation comes) is situated on the edge of the desert, about 6 miles (9 km) north of Isna, near the ancient Asphynis (present-day Asfun al-Mata‘nah). The monastery also bears the name of “Matthew the Poor.” This personage, whose Life survives (or …

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