Red Sea

Monastery Of St. Antony

MONASTERY OF ST. ANTONY It is located at the foot of the Wadi Araba near the Red Sea. The monastery is named after the famous figure of monasticism, St. Antony. Probably in the second half of the fourth century a monastic community gathered around the site where the saint lived. Historian Sulpicius Severus (ca. 360-420) …

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Monastery Of St. Paul

MONASTERY OF ST. PAUL It is located about 39 kilometers southwest of the Red Sea lighthouse station of Za’farana. St. Paul, who is known as the “first hermit,” is presumably Paul of Thebes, whose biography was composed by St. Jerome, probably in 375 or 376. The cave church is the oldest and most venerated element …

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Egyptian Monasticism

EGYPTIAN MONASTICISM Christian monasticism is a distinctive form of spiritual discipline that seems to have been originated in Egypt. St. Antony, the “father of the monks,” is usually regarded as its founder. As a youth of about 18 years old, he responded to a gospel reading (Matt. 19; 21), began his hermitic life as a …

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Wadi Shaykh ‘Ali

WADI SHAYKH ‘ALI A rather narrow and inaccessible ravine running roughly north-south into the Dishna plain in the area of Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt; it apparently was named after the nearby village of Shaykh ‘Ali. Opening off the northwestern perimeter of the desert and flanked by the Jabal al-Tarif to the west and the …

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Arab Conquest Of Egypt

ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT The conquest, under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, was the last of the rapid series of victories in the years A.H. 13-19/A.D. 635-640 that had led the Arabs to overthrow the weakened Byzantine provinces of the Near East. The conquest of Egypt marked the virtual end of a rapid period of expansion, since …

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Yusab (1735-1826)

YUSAB (1735-1826) A bishop of Jirja and Akhmim. Yusab was born in al-Nukhaylah (province of Asyut); his name was originally Yusuf. In 1760 he became a monk at the Monastery of Saint Antony on the Red Sea. In 1791, the 107th patriarch, JOHN XVIII (1769-1796), who belonged once to the Monastery of Saint Antony, consecrated …

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General Ya‘Qub (1745-1801)

GENERAL YA‘QUB (1745-1801) Financial commissioner, then military leader, a mu‘allim become a general, Ya‘qub died young, and we have little information about his remarkable career. His role is thus debated: collaborator in the French occupation of Egypt, or pioneer of national independence? His contemporary al-Jabarti— who was a member of the diwan that collaborated with …

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Karimi Guild

KARIMI GUILD One of the most important guilds of merchants in the history of the Middle East. It conducted extensive trade between the East and the West at the end of the Middle Ages, including the Karimi commerce in spices, jewelry, and precious stones, from the Far East to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, …

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Bush

BUSH A town situated on the left bank of the Nile about 4 miles (7 km) north of Bani Suef. Nearby are the estates that supply the food for the monasteries of Saint Antony and Saint Paul (DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS and DAYR ANBA BULA) near the Red Sea. These two estates appear to be relatively …

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