Rashid

Covenant Of ‘Umar

COVENANT OF ‘UMAR Ascribed to the second Orthodox caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644), and regarded as a document of primary importance in regulating the relations between the Muslim conquerors of the Middle East and their Dhimmi subjects, that is, the Jews and the Christians, including the Coptic nation in Egypt. The situation of the Copts …

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Civil Costume

CIVIL COSTUME Fabrics preserved in public collections are very often in fragments, whether because they were discovered in a poor state of preservation or because a single garment was divided at the end of the excavation. The dating of these textiles is generally agreed to be a sensitive matter, since they most frequently come from …

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Al-Rashid Abu Al-Khayr Ibn Al-Tayyib (?-After 1270)

AL-RASHID ABU AL-KHAYR IBN AL-TAYYIB (?-after 1270) A Priest, theologian. Al-Rashid Abu al-Khayr ibn al-Tayyib worked as a priest, physician, and possibly also scribe to a Muslim notable. He was the author of a number of theological and apologetic works, most notably Tiryaq al-‘uqul fi ‘ilm al-usul (The Theriac of Intellects in Fundamental Theology), an …

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Dayr Al-‘Askar

DAYR AL-‘ASKAR This monastery is one of a group of four briefly described by al-MAQRIZI (A.D. 1442), in the neighborhood of Bilqas, to the northeast of the province of Gharbiyyah. He placed it at one day’s march from the Dayr al-Mightas and near the salt marsh from which the so-called Rashid (Rosetta) salt comes. He …

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Jirji Al-Sim‘Ani

JIRJI AL-SIM‘ANI A Melchite monk (the name means that he was a monk of the monastery of Mar Sim‘-an al-Bahri near Suwaydiyyah, southwest of Antioch) engaged in a religious disputation with three Muslim fuqaha’ during a two-day period in Aleppo in 1217 in the palace of the amir al-Zafir, known as al-Malik al-Mushammar, son of …

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