Ptolemaic times

Pre-Coptic

PRE-COPTIC This general term indicates different stages of script or script forms that to a greater or lesser extent prepared or influenced the creation of the Coptic script. Since the use of the Greek alphabet is essential to the definition of Coptic, it is obvious that one must go back to the first more or …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN TRAVELERS IN EGYPT Egypt attracted visitors from Rome and Italy as early as Ptolemaic times. The initiation of diplomatic relations between the court of the Ptolemies and Rome in 273 B.C. was followed in the second century, especially after the Roman intervention against the Seleucid Antiochus IV in 168 B.C., by an increasing influence …

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Greek Towns In Egypt

GREEK TOWNS IN EGYPT Long before the conquest of Alexander the Great, Greeks had come to Egypt as merchants, soldiers, and settlers during the era of the “Greek colonization” (seventh century B.C.). As a result, NAUCRATIS, in the Delta, was established under the Twenty-sixth Dynasty as a Greek town complete with the traditional set of …

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Greeks In Egypt

GREEKS IN EGYPT Greek contacts with Egypt had been frequent and varied before Alexander the Great conquered the country in 332 B.C., inaugurating the Hellenistic period of Egyptian history. As early as the times of the Sea Peoples and the Dark Ages of Greece Egypt experienced Greek invaders and raiders, but the country was not …

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Coptic Portraiture

COPTIC PORTRAITURE The tradition of portraiture that developed in pharaonic Egypt and in Rome continued in Coptic Egypt among many other elements of pharaonic and classical art. Portraits were created in stone, in textiles, and especially in paint— on wood panels, on fabric, and on walls. Most of these were associated with funerary art. Portraiture …

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Prosopography

PROSOPOGRAPHY A collection of biographical sketches. A prosopography of the persons named in the documents of Egypt, both Greek and Coptic, with information—so far as known—about their parents and their vocation, is a desideratum for various disciplines in the study of antiquity. It would serve for the dating and localizing of the texts so far …

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Memnonia

MEMNONIA The name presumably derived from Memnon, roughly designating the area where, to this day, the majestic statues of Memnon’s colossuses stand in the fields on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes. In other words, this is the village that arose from dynastic times around MADINAT HABU or the funerary temple of Ramses …

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Elephantine

ELEPHANTINE An island at the level of Aswan, and the most southerly town in Egypt. In the pharaonic period, it was the capital of the Elephant nome, but from Ptolemaic times, it was reduced to a temple town and the administration was transferred to Syene, today Aswan, on the eastern riverbank. The two main temples …

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