Proper

The concept of historical cause in Flavius Josephus

The concept of historical cause in Flavius Josephus Historical explanation by means of causes is the all-important prime requisite for a historical text to be presented with guarantees of faithfulness to historical truth. I therefore propose to analyse the two aspects announced at the beginning of this chapter. In the first section I shall classify …

The concept of historical cause in Flavius Josephus Read More »

ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB …

ANGELS Read More »

ALTAR

ALTAR In the NT, as in the LXX, the usual term for ‘altar’ is θυσιαστήριον—a word otherwise confined to Philo, Josephus, and ecclesiastical writers—while βωμός, as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice, is a heathen altar. The most striking example of the antithesis is found in 1 Mac 1:54–59. Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small …

ALTAR Read More »

ALLEGORY

ALLEGORY The word is derived from the Greek ἀλληγορία, used of a mode of speech which implies more than is expressed by the ordinary meaning of the language. This method of interpreting literature was practised at an early date and among different peoples. When ideas of a primitive age were no longer tenable, respect for …

ALLEGORY Read More »

ADVERSARY

ADVERSARY This renders three Greek words in the NT: ἀντίδικος, properly an adversary in a lawsuit, and used of an earthly adversary in Mt 5:25, Lk 12:58; 18:3—all these with a legal reference. It is used of an enemy of God in 1 S 2:10 (LXX), and in 1 P 5:8 of ‘the enemy,’ Satan; …

ADVERSARY Read More »

ABYSS

ABYSS This is the RV rendering of the word ἄβυσσος which occurs in Lk 8:31, Ro 10:7, Rev 9:1, 2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3. In Lk. and Rom. AV translates ‘deep’; in Rev., ‘bottomless pit’—no distinction, however, being made between τὸ φρέαρ τῆς ἀβύσσου in 9:1, 2 (RV ‘the pit of the abyss’) and …

ABYSS Read More »

ABSTINENCE

ABSTINENCE Introduction.—The whole of morality on its negative side may be included under Abstinence. Christian moral progress (sanctification) includes a holding fast (κατέχεσθαι) of the good, and an abstaining from (ἀπέχεσθαι) every form of evil (1 Th 5:21f.). While Christianity has general laws to distinguish the good from the bad, yet for each individual Christian …

ABSTINENCE Read More »

ABADDON The word is found in the NT only in Rev 9:11. In the OT text ’ăbhaddôn occurs six times (only in the Wisdom literature), AV in each case rendering ‘destruction,’ while RV gives ‘Destruction’ in Job 28:22; 31:12, Ps 88:11, but ‘Abaddon’ in Job 26:6, Pr 15:11; 27:20, on the ground, as stated by …

Read More »