Phoibammon monastery

Archives

ARCHIVES There were already archives in Egypt in the pre-Christian period, according to Helck (1975). In Christian times, too, there were official and semiofficial Greek archives: those of soldiers, priests, manual workers, and other private individuals. An attempt to reassemble such archives was announced by Heichelheim in 1932. In these archives documents were preserved, in …

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Correspondence Of Bishops

CORRESPONDENCE OF BISHOPS The inhabitants of Christian Egypt reveal a delight in writing, so far as they were able to write. Many transactions, especially those of legal content, were fixed in written form. Among the papyri and ostraca found in numerous archives and deriving from the antiquities trade, there are letters from bishops to the …

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Hegumenos

HEGUMENOS A title given to some presbyters, as a rule used together with the title presbyteros. The term derives from the Greek hegoumenos, whose primary meaning was “ruler,” well known in pagan Greek and also used by Christian authors to denote a bishop. In late Greek texts from Egypt and in Coptic texts, this title …

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Donation Of Children

DONATION OF CHILDREN A custom of giving a child up to a monastery for one of two reasons: having the child become a monk or making the child a serf of the monastery. Instances of donating children who were intended to become monks are known from literary and especially hagiographic sources. The absence of sources …

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