Philology

Coptology

COPTOLOGY A scientific discipline in Oriental studies that investigates the language and culture of Egypt and Nubia in the widest sense: literature, religion, history, archaeology, and art. Its range extends from late antiquity to the Middle Ages, or even down to the present. It touches on and intersects with a number of neighboring disciplines. The …

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Spoken Coptic Language

SPOKEN COPTIC LANGUAGE Coptic was the spoken language of ancient Egypt until the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century. It was recorded first in the hieroglyphic (sacred) script, the earliest form of Egyptian pictorial writing, and succeeded by the hieratic (priestly), which was the simplified running script, and the demotic (from “demos,” meaning …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN TRAVELERS IN EGYPT Egypt attracted visitors from Rome and Italy as early as Ptolemaic times. The initiation of diplomatic relations between the court of the Ptolemies and Rome in 273 B.C. was followed in the second century, especially after the Roman intervention against the Seleucid Antiochus IV in 168 B.C., by an increasing influence …

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Arius (C. 270-336)

ARIUS (c. 270-336) The controversial church figure. Probably born in Libya, he was named deacon by Patriarch PETER I. Eventually Peter had to excommunicate Arius after he had attached himself to the separatist church of the Melitians. Peter’s successor, ACHILLAS (311-312), ordained Arius presbyter and entrusted him with one of the principal churches in the …

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