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Hypsiphrone (NHC XI, 4)

HYPSIPHRONE (NHC XI, 4) A Gnostic revelation partially preserved in six fragments of the heavily damaged codex. Its title (partially preserved) occurs at the beginning. The opening passage indicates that the text contains a first-person report of a feminine revealer called Hypsiphrone (“high-minded”). Known only in this poorly preserved Coptic version, Hypsiphrone was originally composed …

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Pelagianism

PELAGIANISM Pelagianism is not a doctrine about grace but an ascetic and reform movement. Pelagius was born in the early fourth century (ca. 350), perhaps in Britain. He came to Carthage in the late decades of the fourth century or the early decades of the fifth century. He adopted an ascetic life and gained a …

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Uhanna Sheftishi

YUHANNA SHEFTISHI An 18th-19th-century priest and scholar. He was born in Cairo. He served as an interpreter, adjudicator for tax collection, and main recorder at the Tribunal of Commerce under the French administration following the Campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt (1798-1801). He was appointed a colonel in the Coptic legion, which General Ya‘qub had …

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Patriarch Gabriel III

PATRIARCH GABRIEL III The life of the monk and priest Ghubriyāl, who eventually became Coptic patriarch Gabriel III (usually counted as the 77th patriarch, 1268–1271), bears witness to both the flourishing of literary and scientific activity as well as to the turbulence of ecclesiastical and social affairs that characterize Coptic Orthodox history in the middle decades …

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Bashmuric

BASHMURIC The history of the Bashmuric dialect is in large measure that of a “phantom dialect.” Coptic Egypt had many more dialects than modern science has been able to identify from the texts discovered; but some of these never reached the literary stage. Others did (perhaps poorly enough), but none of their witnesses has been …

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Roman Army

ROMAN ARMY Roman troops were already present in Egypt when the country was still ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy XII Auletes, who had been driven from his throne by the Alexandrian opposition, would hardly have been able to reenter Egypt without the military aid of the Roman legate Aulus Gabinius (55 B.C.). Since that …

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