patriarch of Constantinople

Peter III Mongus

PETER III MONGUS The twenty-seventh patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (480-488). Peter III, surnamed Mongus (the Greek term for stammerer), was elected Monophysite head of the Coptic Church in succession to TIMOTHY II AELURUS, against rivals who upheld the diophysite dictates of the Council of CHALCEDON (451), notably Timothy Salofaciolus, the Chalcedonian patriarch. …

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Proclus Saint

PROCLUS SAINT The patriarch of Constantinople (434-446), who was a preacher and writer (feast day: 20 November in the East, 24 October in the West). According to the historian Socrates, Proclus was very young when he assumed the lector’s robe. From 407, when he was eighteen, to 425, he served Atticus, patriarch of Constantinople, as …

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Filioque

FILIOQUE A Latin word meaning “and from the Son” added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed by the Latin church after the words “the Holy Spirit . . . Who proceeds from the Father.” It was the subject of dissension between Eastern and Western churches. History of the Filioque Controversy Ideas akin to those expressed by the …

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Monenergism (Monergism)

MONENERGISM (Monergism) A movement that developed in the early part of the seventh century from an attempt by Emperor Heraclius I (610-641) to find a formula that would reconcile the Monophysites with neo-Chalcedonian orthodoxy. The dramatic success of Heraclius against the Persians, culminating in the triumphant restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem in 630, …

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Monothelitism

MONOTHELITISM For Egypt and the Coptic church, monothelitism may be taken simply as a continuation of the monenergist crisis with which imperial power in Egypt ended. At CONSTANTINOPLE, two councils in 638 and 639 accepted the ECTHESIS of Emperor Heraclius (610-641). As in other efforts over the previous two centuries to find agreement on a …

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Nestorians And Copts

NESTORIANS AND COPTS The first theological and Christological clash between the Nestorian doctrines and Alexandrian orthodoxy took place at the Council of EPHESUS (431). CYRIL I (412-444) faced a new phase in Christology as preached by the scholar NESTORIUS, patriarch of Constantinople. The Alexandrian theologians, led by Saint Cyril, taught that Jesus Christ was the …

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Nestorius

NESTORIUS Nestorius was born at Germanicia in Syria Euphratensis sometime before 381, and became patriarch of Constantinople in 428. After his condemnation for heresy and deposition by the First Council of EPHESUS in 431, he was allowed by Emperor Theodosius II to retire to his former monastery a short distance from the gates of Antioch. …

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John Of Antioch

JOHN OF ANTIOCH A fifth-century bishop of Antioch who was the chief supporter of NESTORIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, in the Nestorian controversy over the nature of Christ. To resolve the controversy, which set Nestorius against Saint CYRIL I, patriarch of Alexandria, Emperor Theodosius II ordered the Council of Ephesus to be convened in 431. The …

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