patriarch of Constantinople

Candles

CANDLES Candles have been used in churches since the early days of Christianity on many occasions. According to Ibn al-‘Assal’s Kitab al-Qawanin (Book of Canon Law) and the DIDASCALIA, candles must be lighted during all services, a reference to the words of Jesus Christ, “I have come as a light into the world” (Jn. 12:46). …

Candles Read More »

Saint Sophia

SAINT SOPHIA [A holy woman of the fourth century or later whose remains are interred in the Church of Santa Sophia (Hagia Sophia) in Constantinople (feast day: 5 Tut). There are several versions of her story.] The Jacobite Tradition The Jacobite-Arabic SYNAXARION, preserved in a seventeenth-century copy (restored in the nineteenth century) in the National …

Saint Sophia Read More »

Theophilus

THEOPHILUS A Saint and patriarch. He was the 23rd Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). He is commemorated on the 18th of Babeh. He was patriarch from 385 to 412 a.d. and played a significant role in increasing the prestige of the See of Alexandria. He was highly educated and an effective dean of the Catechetical School …

Theophilus Read More »

Origen (185-Ca. 254)

ORIGEN (185-ca. 254) Theologian. Origen is the most controversial person in Christian history. He is considered by the Fathers of the Church, such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Pamphile, as being a saint, while other Fathers such as Epiphanius, Theophilus (Patriarch of Alexandria), and Shenute (or Dioscorus) considered him a heretic. In the sixth century, …

Origen (185-Ca. 254) Read More »

Theotokos

THEOTOKOS A greek term meaning “God-bearer.” This title of the Virgin Mary was used by Greek and especially Alexandrian church fathers and writers from ORIGEN on and perhaps even by Hippolytus of Rome. In any case, CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 110-c. 220) used the expression Marias tes metros tou kyriou (Mary the Mother of the …

Theotokos Read More »

Timothy II Aelurus

TIMOTHY II AELURUS The twenty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (457-477). Along with Philoxenus of Mabbug and SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH, Timothy was the preeminent champion of MONOPHYSITISM. He adhered to CYRIL’S well-known formula “one incarnate nature of the divine Logos” and took up DIOSCORUS’ cause when the latter was deposed at CHALCEDON. Consecrated …

Timothy II Aelurus Read More »