Nicene Creed

Trisagion

TRISAGION “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal . . . have mercy upon us.” The Trisagion was introduced into the Byzantine liturgy by Proclus of Cyzicus, who succeeded Nestorius as Bishop of Constantinople (431-446 a.d.). However, a papyrus from the fourth century preserved in the collection of the University of Strasbourg includes a Trisagion in …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE This entry consists of four parts. The first addresses the origins and development of the Arabic literature of the Copts. This is followed by introductions to three Copto-Arabic literary genres—hagiography, apocalyptic, and popular catechesis—for which texts are usually of anonymous authorship, and therefore unlikely to be otherwise addressed in a dictionary arranged largely …

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Filioque

FILIOQUE Latin, meaning “and [from] the son.” In the sixth century, Arian barbarians (Goth and Visigoth) invaded the western empire and introduced many heretical dogmas and expressions. In 589 a.d., the Council of Toledo included details in the Nicene Creed concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son in order …

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Incarnation

INCARNATION The doctrine of incarnation—that God the Son took flesh and became man—is the central point of Christian theology. It is attested in the New Testament (John 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16). During the fourth century there was a great debate about the incarnation of Christ, especially after the Arian heresy. The Nicene Creed (325 a.d.) …

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Liturgy Of The Matins

LITURGY OF THE MATINS The Vespers and the Matins are called the “Offering of Incense” in the Coptic Church. They are very similar. They appeared under one section in the edited Euchologion. They begin with the Prayer of Thanksgiving, followed by a hymn called “The Verses of the Cymbals” (Arba‘ al-Naqus). The priest then prays …

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