Nestorian

Cosmas Indicopleustes

COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES The name given to an anonymous Nestorian author of the twelve-book Christian Topography, written a few years before the Second Council of CONSTANTINOPLE (553). Cosmas was an Egyptian merchant, probably from Alexandria, who plied his trade in Alexandria, the Red Sea port of Adulis (Sawakin), and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), calling at the island …

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Communion Table

COMMUNION TABLE The fixed table standing in the middle of the sanctury (haykal) of the church, at which the Divine Liturgy is celebrated. It is an almost cubical structure of brickwork, stonework, or marble. In the first three centuries of the Christian era, the communion table was made of wood, partly in symbolic allusion to …

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Celestinus Of Rome

CELESTINUS OF ROME A bishop of Rome (422-432) and the authority to whom NESTORIUS, bishop of Constantinople, and CYRIL I, bishop of Alexandria, appealed during their controversy over the term THEOTOKOS (430). Celestinus sided with Cyril, and thus caused the condemnation of Nestorius at a council held in Rome. The subsequent Council of EPHESUS later …

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Christology

CHRISTOLOGY The study of the person of Christ with special reference to the union of the divine and human natures in the one person. From the New Testament we know that the early Christians regarded Christ as both God and man, but it was the task of later Christology to express this coherently in precise …

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Al-Nushu’ Abu Shakir Ibn Al-Rahib (Ca. 1210-Ca. 1290).

AL-NUSHU’ ABU SHAKIR IBN AL-RAHIB (ca. 1210-ca. 1290). Encyclopedist, historian, theologian, scholar of Coptic. The Coptic polymath Nushu’ al-Khilafa Abu Shakir, known as Ibn al-Rahib (“Son of the Monk”), was the son of al-Shaykh al-Sana’ Abu al-Majd, a high-ranking civil servant who became a monk and who provided leadership to the Coptic Orthodox Church during …

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Dioscorus I

DIOSCORUS I A Saint and patriarch. He was the 25th patriarch of Alexandria (446-454). Our best reference about his life is the Coptic version of the History of the Patriarchs. He was a disciple of Cyril of Alexandria and a vigorous opponent of Nestorian doctrines. Eutyches also argued against the Nestorian parties but he was …

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Saint John Cassian

SAINT JOHN CASSIAN A monk and author of a monastic rule. John Cassian was born around 360, no doubt in the neighborhood of the present town of Constantza, Romania. After receiving a first-rate education, John Cassian was initiated into the monastic life at Bethlehem. He soon undertook a pilgrimage to the Egyptian monastic sites, which …

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