Nag Hammadi

Gnosticism In Egypt

GNOSTICISM IN EGYPT The term “Gnosticism” was first coined in the 17th century to refer to an early Christian heresy described by the Church Father Irenaeus of Lyon in his five volumes Against Heresies (ca. 185). Historians of religions use the term to refer to a religion that probably developed around the turn of the …

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Gospel Of Judas

GOSPEL OF JUDAS Its text is extant in only one manuscript, known as Codex Tchacos, an early fourth-century Coptic papyrus manuscript that surfaced in the 1970s. It is reported that the codex was discovered during an illegal search for treasures in a burial cave near the village of Qarrara north of al-Minya in Middle Egypt. …

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Martin Krause (1930-)

MARTIN KRAUSE (1930-) A Coptologist and educator. He is the father of modern Coptology. He was born in Planitz near Zwickau, Germany. He studied theology, Egyptology, and the history of religion in Berlin and Leipzig and obtained a PhD (Berlin) in 1956 and a ThD (Leipzig) in 1958. In 1958, he joined the German Archaeological …

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Dayr Anba Palaemon

DAYR ANBA PALAEMON On the right bank of the Nile, to the north of the river, which at this point from Qena as far as Nag Hammadi flows from east to west, to the east of the town of Al-Qasr wa-al-Sayyad, is said to be the site of the ancient Sheneset (the Coptic name) or …

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Pahor Labib (1905-1994)

PAHOR LABIB (1905-1994) Director of the Coptic Museum, educator. He was born in Cairo. His father was Iqladiyus Labib, who used to speak only Coptic with his family. He studied Egyptology at Cairo University and obtained his PhD from the University of Friedrich Wilhelms, Berlin, in 1934. He was appointed lecturer in the Institute of …

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Togo Mina (1906-1949)

TOGO MINA (1906-1949) An Egyptian Coptologist. He was born in Assiut in Upper Egypt. He obtained a diploma of Egyptology from Cairo University in 1929. Between 1930 and 1934 he studied at the Ecole Pratique, Ecole du Louvre, and Institut Catholique in France. His dissertation “Le martyr d’Apa Epima” was published in Cairo in 1937. …

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Berlin Gnostic Codex (Papyrus Berolinensis 8502)

BERLIN GNOSTIC CODEX (PAPYRUS BEROLINENSIS 8502) A fifth-century papyrus manuscript discovered in Egypt sometime in the 19th century and purchased for the Berlin Museum in 1896 by Carl Schmidt. It contains three Gnostic tractates and one non-Gnostic Christian work. These are, respectively, the Gospel of Mary, the Apocryphon of John, the Sophia of Jesus Christ, …

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Nag Hammadi Codices

NAG HAMMADI CODICES A group of 12 papyrus codices plus eight leaves dating from the fourth century and inscribed in Coptic. The manuscripts were discovered in a buried storage jar by fellahin (farmers) in 1945 some 10 kilometers from Nag Hammadi, and are now housed in the Coptic Museum in Old Cairo. Publication of the …

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