The History of Christianity in Egypt

The History of Christianity in Egypt THE TERM COPT COMES DIRECTLY FROM THE ARABIC QBT, which appears to derive from the Greek aigyptos (Egypt) / aigyptioi (Egyptians), a phonetic corruption of the ancient Egyptian word Hikaptah, one of the names of Memphis. Initially the word described a non-Arabic-speaking non-Muslim. By implication, a Copt was also […]

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Christian Subjects In Coptic Art

CHRISTIAN SUBJECTS IN COPTIC ART Whatever its materials and techniques—stone or wood relief sculpture, painted walls or manuscripts, textiles, metalwork, ceramics, or glass—Coptic Christian iconography retained a few rare elements of pharaonic origin and many Greco-Roman elements from Alexandrian tradition. From the fifth century on, these pagan subjects mingled with Christian motifs. The Christian subjects […]

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Canons Of Gregory Of Nyssa

CANONS OF GREGORY OF NYSSA Two series of canons under the name GREGORY OF NYSSA, although we have no arguments for or against this attribution. The first series appears in the chronological collection of MACARIUS, in an anonymous chronological collection (now in Berlin), and in the systematic collection of al-SAFI IBN AL-‘ASSAL, of which IBN […]

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Theology In The Coptic Church

THEOLOGY IN THE COPTIC CHURCH It is hard to talk about a specifically Coptic theology, for the Coptic Church is part of the Eastern Christian Church. Thus, in order to define the development of Coptic theological thought, it is important to put it in the context of the historical development of the Coptic Church. Nothing […]

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Christology

CHRISTOLOGY The study of the person of Christ with special reference to the union of the divine and human natures in the one person. From the New Testament we know that the early Christians regarded Christ as both God and man, but it was the task of later Christology to express this coherently in precise […]

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Third Council Of Constantinople

THIRD COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE This, the sixth ecumenical council, first met on 7 November 680 and ended its eighteen sessions on 16 September 681. The number of bishops attending was under 300, and the minutes of the last session have only 174 signatures attached to them. The council was convened by Emperor Constantine IV to […]

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Second Council Of Constantinople

SECOND COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE Known as the fifth general council and convoked by Emperor Justinian I in May 553. It was presided over by Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople, and attended by 165 bishops, nearly all from the eastern and Greek-speaking provinces of Justinian’s empire. The main object of the council was to modify (without appearing […]

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Saint Sophia

SAINT SOPHIA [A holy woman of the fourth century or later whose remains are interred in the Church of Santa Sophia (Hagia Sophia) in Constantinople (feast day: 5 Tut). There are several versions of her story.] The Jacobite Tradition The Jacobite-Arabic SYNAXARION, preserved in a seventeenth-century copy (restored in the nineteenth century) in the National […]

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Dayr Al-Baramus

DAYR AL-BARAMUS History This monastery is farthest to the northwest in the monastic colony of Wadi al-Natrun (ancient Scetis). The topographic allusions in ancient literature lend some credence to the statement by the author of the Coptic Life of Saint Macarius (probably of the eighth century; cf. Guillaumont, 1968-1969, pp. 182-83) that Dayr al-Baramus evolved […]

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Arab Conquest Of Egypt

ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT The conquest, under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, was the last of the rapid series of victories in the years A.H. 13-19/A.D. 635-640 that had led the Arabs to overthrow the weakened Byzantine provinces of the Near East. The conquest of Egypt marked the virtual end of a rapid period of expansion, since […]

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