Monophysite movement

Damian

DAMIAN The thirty-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (569-605). (Some sources list the beginning of his reign as 578.) He was contemporary to four Byzantine emperors, Justin II (565-578), Tiberius II (578-582), Maurice (582-602), and Phocas (602-610). During their reigns, the Byzantine rulers were distracted from the imposition of the Chalcedonian profession of …

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Eutyches

EUTYCHES The fifth-century archimandrite in Constantinople whose Christological views had a considerable influence in molding the Christology of the Coptic-Monophysite church. Born perhaps as early as 370 (he tells Pope LEO THE GREAT (440-461) that he had lived a monastic life for seventy years), he was head of a monastic house in the capital by …

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Justinian

JUSTINIAN (c. 482-565) The Byzantine emperor. Originally given the name Petrus Sabbatius, he took the name Justinian upon being adopted by his uncle Justin, whom he later succeeded as emperor (1 August 527). Justinian’s reign was marked by extensive legal reform, successful military incursions against the Vandals and the Goths, vast architectural undertakings, and an …

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Henoticon

HENOTICON A fifth-century imperial edict that was one of the basic statements of imperial theology and ecclesiastical policy of the early Byzantine period. It is the name given to the instrument of union addressed by Emperor ZENO to the “bishops, clergy, monks and laity throughout Alexandria and Egypt and Libya and Pentapolis” in 482. Its …

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Peter IV

PETER IV The thirty-fourth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark. Although the HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS gives the dates of 567-569 for Peter’s patriarchy, some sources begin his term at 575 (see Maspero, 1923, p. 212). The death of the patriarch THEODOSIUS I in 567 was followed by nine years of confusion, during which …

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Monenergism (Monergism)

MONENERGISM (Monergism) A movement that developed in the early part of the seventh century from an attempt by Emperor Heraclius I (610-641) to find a formula that would reconcile the Monophysites with neo-Chalcedonian orthodoxy. The dramatic success of Heraclius against the Persians, culminating in the triumphant restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem in 630, …

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John Of Antioch

JOHN OF ANTIOCH A fifth-century bishop of Antioch who was the chief supporter of NESTORIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, in the Nestorian controversy over the nature of Christ. To resolve the controversy, which set Nestorius against Saint CYRIL I, patriarch of Alexandria, Emperor Theodosius II ordered the Council of Ephesus to be convened in 431. The …

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Third Council Of Ephesus

THIRD COUNCIL OF EPHESUS A large synod of bishops from the provinces of Asia Minor, Ephesus III was presided over by TIMOTHY II AELURUS in 476, on his way from Constantinople to Alexandria, during the latter stages of the usurpation of Basiliscus (475-476). The convening of the synod was Timothy’s final effort to gain the …

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Dioscorus II

DIOSCORUS II The thirty-first patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (515-517). A nephew of TIMOTHY II Aelurus, Dioscorus II had a brief but dramatic reign. He was first installed under the auspices of the government authorities, but when this roused protests, he secured a more proper ecclesiastical enthronement. Nevertheless, riots followed in which the …

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