Middle Ages

Adon Olam

Adon Olam n. Hebrew (ah-DOAN oh-LAM) Literally, “Lord of the world” or “eternal Lord.” One of the songs traditionally sung to end Shabbat and holiday morning services. Sung by the entire congregation together in Hebrew, the words to “Adon Olam” date from the Middle Ages. The hymn praises eternal God, “who rules everything and will …

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Demons

Demons Demons are supernatural beings who are subservient to Satan. They, like Satan, were once angels. They joined Satan in his rebellion and were cast out of heaven with him. When they are mentioned in Scripture, the primary focus is on demon possession of human beings. The apostle Paul points out that while the idolatrous …

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The Role of the Female Elder in Shenoute’s White Monastery

The Role of the Female Elder in Shenoute’s White Monastery[1] THE WHITE MONASTERY in the fourth and fifth centuries consisted of dif­ferent communities, or congregations. They were separated physically but united under one set of monastic rules and one main monastic leader, at least during the tenure of its third head, Shenoute. One of these …

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The Ancient Rules of Shenoute’s Monastic Federation

The Ancient Rules of Shenoute’s Monastic Federation WORK IS NOW well under way to produce a critical edition of Shenoute’s vast work entitled Canons. My own editorial task is volumes 4 and 5 of the Canons. Now, this title—Canons—is a bit odd. In Christian usage of the Greek language, ‘canons’—kanones—meant ‘rules’ or ‘laws,’ and so …

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Snapshots on the Sculptural Heritage of the White Monastery at Sohag: The Wall Niches

Snapshots on the Sculptural Heritage of the White Monastery at Sohag: The Wall Niches THE SCULPTURAL REMAINS of both monastic churches in the Sohag region, the so-called Red and White Monasteries (Dayr al-Ahmar and Dayr al-Abyad)[1], is of great importance with regard to our absolutely insufficient knowledge of Coptic architectural sculpture in general.[2] It is …

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The Monastery of the Holy Virgin Mary at al-Muharraq, Mount Qusqam: History and Heritage (Reflections of Its Monks)

The Monastery of the Holy Virgin Mary at al-Muharraq, Mount Qusqam: History and Heritage (Reflections of Its Monks) Introduction[1] The history of the Coptic Orthodox Church makes no mention of any information about the monastic community or the Holy Virgin Church in the Qusqam region until the fourteenth-century ad. The name Qusqam (al-Muharraq Monastery) is …

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