metropolitans

Church Hierarchy

CHURCH HIERARCHY The hierarchy is the collective body of the ecclesiastical ranks including bishops (patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops), priests (presbyter and hegumen), and deacons (archdeacons and deacons). The rite of ordination of each rank prescribes the role of each member. The ecumenical councils issued several decrees in order to organize their work. In the fifth …

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Burial Rites

BURIAL RITES The Coptic Church inherited the ancient Egyptian mentality regarding burial rites and ceremonies for the dead, which played an important role in the life of the Coptic congregation. The time of dying is one of the common themes in Coptic hagiography. Epitaph inscriptions reflect the mentality of the Coptic Egyptian toward death. Even …

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Waqf, Coptic

COPTIC WAQF An Arabic term (plural awqaf) that has a meaning similar to “estate in mortmain,” the inalienable possession of property, or tenure of land, by an ecclesiastical or charitable organization. The waqf is a legal system derived from Islamic jurisprudence, which was applied in Egypt after the ARAB CONQUEST (A.D. 641). Awqaf are of …

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Yusab II

YUSAB II The 115th patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1946-1956). He was born in 1880 at Dayr al-Tafatish, a village near al-Balyana in the province of Jirja. He entered DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS, in the Eastern Desert, at the age of seventeen, and was made priest and HEGUMENOS in 1901. From 1902 to 1905 …

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Church Hierarchy

CHURCH HIERARCHY The collective body of organized ecclesiastical ranks, in successive order, one above another. The pyramidal structure consists of a hierarch, the pope as the head of the church, in subordination to whom are the episcopacy composed of METROPOLITANS, ARCHBISHOPS, and BISHOPS as well as the presbytery of protopriests (see HEGUMENOS), PRIESTS, and MONKS. …

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Boule

BOULE A town council in Egypt during Roman domination. One of the features that set Egypt apart from other Roman provinces was the scarcity of towns (in the legal sense of the term) and the peculiar status of the metropoleis, the nome capitals. The latter, literally “mother cities,” while including the designation polis (city), were …

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Holy Synod

HOLY SYNOD The supreme ecclesiastical authority of the Coptic church, under the presidency of the patriarch of Alexandria. Ever since the foundation of the church by Saint Mark in the first century, there has existed such an authority to protect the faith, preserve tradition, and ensure the welfare of the church. Membership is vested in …

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Habib Jirjis (1876-1951)

HABIB JIRJIS (1876-1951) Coptic theologian. He was born at Azbakiyyah, Cairo, and joined the Coptic School at Harit al- Saqqayin. He was one of the earliest students enrolled in the CLERICAL COLLEGE after its inception in 1892. He graduated in 1898, became a teacher of theology at the College, and then dean in 1918. He …

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