Covenant Of ‘Umar

COVENANT OF ‘UMAR Ascribed to the second Orthodox caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644), and regarded as a document of primary importance in regulating the relations between the Muslim conquerors of the Middle East and their Dhimmi subjects, that is, the Jews and the Christians, including the Coptic nation in Egypt. The situation of the Copts […]

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Canons Of Saint Basil

CANONS OF SAINT BASIL One of the sources of Coptic church law. They appear in two series. The first, containing thirteen canons, is shared with the Melchites; the second, of 105 or 106 canons, is peculiar to the Copts. The first series includes disciplinary sanctions with regard to priests or deacons and the prohibition against […]

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Canons Of Gregory Of Nyssa

CANONS OF GREGORY OF NYSSA Two series of canons under the name GREGORY OF NYSSA, although we have no arguments for or against this attribution. The first series appears in the chronological collection of MACARIUS, in an anonymous chronological collection (now in Berlin), and in the systematic collection of al-SAFI IBN AL-‘ASSAL, of which IBN […]

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Canons Of Epiphanius

CANONS OF EPIPHANIUS A set of canons prescribing moral rules concerning the clergy and the laity, promulgated by the emperor JUSTINIAN at the instigation of the patriarch of Constantinople. The Epiphanius under whose name these canons are placed is not, as one might be tempted to think, the famous bishop of Salamis in the fourth […]

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Canons Of Clement

CANONS OF CLEMENT Or “Letter of Peter to Clement.” Under one or the other of these titles, there is current among the Copts, as among the Melchites, an apocryphon containing alleged revelations of Jesus, given on the Mount of Olives before his ascension, concerning the moral life of his community and various ritual prescriptions. The […]

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Apostolic Canons

APOSTOLIC CANONS A series of eighty-four or eighty-five canons that in Greek form the concluding chapter (47) of Book 8 of the Apostolic Constitutions (Funk, 1905, Vol. 1, pp. 564-94). The Sahidic Coptic version counts seventy-one canons, the Arabic series (Book 2 of the 127 Canons of the Apostles) fifty-six only, the same as the […]

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Canon Law

CANON LAW Codified law governing a church. The Coptic church has no codex juris canonici, as the Roman church does, but it has remained closer to its sources, which it has grouped in chronological or systematic collections. From the Coptic period, the church of Egypt was concerned with Coptic translation of the sources of church […]

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Architectural Elements Of Churches -Index

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF CHURCHES -INDEX Aisle Ambulatory Apse Atrium Baptistery Cancelli Ceiling Choir Ciborium Coffer Colonnade Column Crypt Daraj al-haykal Diaconicon Dome Elements Gallery Horseshoe arch Iconostasis Khurus Maqsurah Naos Narthex Nave Niche Pastophorium Pillare Porche Presbytery Prothyrone Prothesise Return aisle Roofe Sacristy Saddleback roof Sanctuary Shaq al-haykal Sacristye Sanctuarye Synthronone Tetraconche Tribelone Triconche Triumphal […]

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Narthex – Architectural Elements Of Churches

Narthex A narthex is a vestibule of a church, corresponding to the pronaos (porch) of a classical temple. The Greek word means literally “a reedlike plant.” In the sixth century, Procopius of Caesarea, evidently for the first time, described the antechamber of a church as a narthex because it was small (Procopius De aedificiis 1.4.7, […]

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Waq‘At Al-Kana’is (The Incident Of The Churches)

WAQ‘AT AL-KANA’IS The first demonstration of the presence of widely organized Muslim religious brotherhoods in Egypt and of their deep impact on the populace, which they manipulated in the Mamluk period. On one day in 1321, the populace, incited and led by members of these brotherhoods, destroyed, pillaged, and burned over sixty of the main […]

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