meaning

ALLEGORY

ALLEGORY The word is derived from the Greek ἀλληγορία, used of a mode of speech which implies more than is expressed by the ordinary meaning of the language. This method of interpreting literature was practised at an early date and among different peoples. When ideas of a primitive age were no longer tenable, respect for …

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AIR

AIR The apostles, like other Jews of their time, regarded the air as a region between earth and the higher heavens, inhabited by spirits, especially evil spirits. In Eph 2:2 the air is the abode or Satan (see below); in Eph 6:12 ‘the heavenlies’ (τὰ ἐπουράνια)—a vague phrase used also in Eph 1:3, 20; 2:6; …

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AGED

AGED In Philem 9 the writer speaks of himself as Παῦλος πρεσβύτης (AV and RV ‘Paul the aged,’ RVm ‘ambassador’). In strictness the translation ‘ambassador’ requires πρεσβευτής, a word which does not occur in the NT. The two forms may have been confused in transcription or in common use. The translation ‘ambassador’ is more fitting …

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AGE

AGE The general significance of ‘age’ is a period of time, or a measure of life. Specially, it expresses the idea of advancement in life, or of oldness. Several Greek words are employed in NT for ‘age.’ (1) αἰών (see Æon). (2) γενεά, ‘a generation,’ loosely measured as extending from 30 to 33 years. In …

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ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’)

ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’) There is some uncertainty as to the derivation of the word αἰών. Some relate it with ἄημι, ‘to breathe,’ but modern opinion connects it with ἀεί, αἰεί (= αἰών), and finds as other derivatives the Latin œvum and the English ‘aye.’ In the LXX αἰών is used to translate עוֹלָם …

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ADMONITION

ADMONITION Obedience to God’s law and submission to His will are essential for progressive spiritual life. Human nature being what it is, there is need for constant admonition (2 P 1:10–21). In the NT reference is made to this subject in its family, professional, and Divine aspects. νουθετέω and νουθεσία (a later form for νουθέτησις) …

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ACCESS

ACCESS This word in the Epistles of the NT is the translation of the Greek word προσαγωγή (Ro 5:2, Eph 2:18; 3:12; cf. 1 P 3:18, where the verb is used actively). It has been treated very thoroughly in DCG (s.v.). Here we shall confine ourselves to— The connotation of the word.—In classical Greek, the …

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ABYSS

ABYSS This is the RV rendering of the word ἄβυσσος which occurs in Lk 8:31, Ro 10:7, Rev 9:1, 2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3. In Lk. and Rom. AV translates ‘deep’; in Rev., ‘bottomless pit’—no distinction, however, being made between τὸ φρέαρ τῆς ἀβύσσου in 9:1, 2 (RV ‘the pit of the abyss’) and …

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ABUSE, ABUSERS

ABUSE, ABUSERS The Latin abūtor means either (1) ‘use badly,’ ‘misuse,’ or (2) ‘use to the full.’ In this second sense Cicero uses the word of spending one’s whole leisure time with a friend (see Lewis and Short, Latin Dict., s.v. ‘Abūtor’), The Greek verb καταχράομαι had both these meanings. Thus in Plato (Menex. 247 …

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