Marcus Aurelius

Chaldaean Oracles

CHALDAEAN ORACLES A revelatory poem, written in Greek hexameter verse, composed or edited by a certain magician named Julianus, who lived during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Its importance is twofold: it is the last major sacred book of pagan antiquity, and it had major influence on the development of Neoplatonism from Porphyry to Psellus. …

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Apologist

APOLOGIST Apologists is the title given to a group of the Church Fathers who strove in the second century to defend Christianity against pagan attacks. They tried to explain the principles of religion, showing that Christianity is compatible with good citizenship, contrary to the belief that refusing to worship the emperor constituted a plot against …

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Saint Celadion

SAINT CELADION The ninth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (157- 167). He held the office during the reigns of emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He was laid to rest on 9 Abîb near the remains of Saint Mark in the Church of Bucalis at Alexandria. BIBLIOGRAPHY Atiya, A.S. History of Eastern Christianity. …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN EMPERORS IN EGYPT Although Alexandria never became a “Second Rome,” the existence and, in some sense, the presence of the Roman emperor was a common and permanent experience for the inhabitants of Egypt. The head of the provincial administration, the prefect of Egypt, was the direct representative of the emperor. The importance and power …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN TRAVELERS IN EGYPT Egypt attracted visitors from Rome and Italy as early as Ptolemaic times. The initiation of diplomatic relations between the court of the Ptolemies and Rome in 273 B.C. was followed in the second century, especially after the Roman intervention against the Seleucid Antiochus IV in 168 B.C., by an increasing influence …

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Saint Julian

SAINT JULIAN The eleventh patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (180-189). He held the office for ten years during the reigns of emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. He was laid to rest on 8 Baramhat next to the remains of Saint Mark in the Church of Bucalis at Alexandria. BIBLIOGRAPHY Atiya, A. S. History …

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Greeks In Egypt

GREEKS IN EGYPT Greek contacts with Egypt had been frequent and varied before Alexander the Great conquered the country in 332 B.C., inaugurating the Hellenistic period of Egyptian history. As early as the times of the Sea Peoples and the Dark Ages of Greece Egypt experienced Greek invaders and raiders, but the country was not …

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Persecutions

PERSECUTIONS The persecution of Christians in Egypt has to be considered in connection with the religious policy and the ruler cult of the Roman emperors. Right from the start the Christians, being the followers of what was largely perceived as a Jewish sectarian executed by order of a Roman government representative, looked suspicious to both …

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Melito Of Sardis

MELITO OF SARDIS (d. c. 177) EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (Ecclesiastical History 5.24.2-6) has preserved for us a letter of about 190 of Polycrates of Ephesus, who praises the important Christians of Asia Minor who clung to the custom of celebrating Easter on the Jewish calendar day of 14 Nisan, rather than on the Sunday after …

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Martyrdom

MARTYRDOM The voluntary submission to death for the sake of one’s faith. The term “martyr” originally signified one who possessed firsthand knowledge of a matter to which one witnessed in public. In this sense, it was first used to describe the apostles who bore witness for Christ and the Resurrection (Acts 1:8, 22). Later the …

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