Dayr Bi’l-Habash

DAYR BI’L-HABASH (Monastery in the quarter of the Ethiopians). The first foundation of the Muslims on the site known as al-Fustat—that is, modern-day Old Cairo—included to the south a pool that was called the Pool of the Ethiopians (it is not known where the name comes from). This appellation is ancient, for it is given …

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Patriarch Gabriel III

PATRIARCH GABRIEL III The life of the monk and priest Ghubriyāl, who eventually became Coptic patriarch Gabriel III (usually counted as the 77th patriarch, 1268–1271), bears witness to both the flourishing of literary and scientific activity as well as to the turbulence of ecclesiastical and social affairs that characterize Coptic Orthodox history in the middle decades …

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BASHMURIC The history of the Bashmuric dialect is in large measure that of a “phantom dialect.” Coptic Egypt had many more dialects than modern science has been able to identify from the texts discovered; but some of these never reached the literary stage. Others did (perhaps poorly enough), but none of their witnesses has been …

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