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Theology And Liturgy Bibliography

THEOLOGY AND LITURGY BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdallah, Alfonso. L’ordinamento Liturgico di Gabriele V-88 Patriarca Copto. Cairo: Ain Shams Press, 1962. ‘Abd al-Masih Salib al-Mas‘udi. Al-Khuulaji al-Muqaddas. Cairo: n.p., 1902. Alcock, Antony. The Life of Saint Samuel of Kalamun by Isaac the Presbyter. London: Aris & Philips, 1983. Allen, Pauline, and C. Datema. “Leontius presbyter of Constantinople.” Byzantina …

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Patriarch Gabriel III

PATRIARCH GABRIEL III The life of the monk and priest Ghubriyāl, who eventually became Coptic patriarch Gabriel III (usually counted as the 77th patriarch, 1268–1271), bears witness to both the flourishing of literary and scientific activity as well as to the turbulence of ecclesiastical and social affairs that characterize Coptic Orthodox history in the middle decades …

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Coptic Legal Sources

COPTIC LEGAL SOURCES The sources for Coptic law are legal documents in Greek, Coptic, and Arabic. The reason for this is that several languages were in use in Egypt in this period, as is shown also by the fact that the Egyptian civil lawyers drafted Greek and Coptic documents at the same time, while Copts …

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Coptic Law

COPTIC LAW By “Coptic law” we understand the particularities of legal practice evidenced in documents written in the Coptic language, from roughly the sixth to the ninth century (Steinwenter, 1955; Schiller, 1932a, 1957, 1971a). The substance of the law is found in the combination of Greek, Coptic, and Arabic documents, but the present treatment rests …

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Taxation In Roman Egypt

TAXATION IN ROMAN EGYPT A leading authority on taxes and “liturgies” (unpaid obligations) in Roman Egypt summarized very aptly, “No ancient government and few modern ones have had a tax structure rivalling in intricacy that of Roman Egypt. There we confront a staggering array of charges and surcharges assessed upon the person, the land, occupations …

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Annona

ANNONA A term for Egypt’s annual wheat crop during Roman times. A substantial part of the annona was destined to feed the people of Rome (annona civica, annona urbis). In economic terms, the contribution Egypt had to furnish after its conquest by the Romans in 30 B.C. was of paramount importance, as the shipments from …

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Greek Towns In Egypt

GREEK TOWNS IN EGYPT Long before the conquest of Alexander the Great, Greeks had come to Egypt as merchants, soldiers, and settlers during the era of the “Greek colonization” (seventh century B.C.). As a result, NAUCRATIS, in the Delta, was established under the Twenty-sixth Dynasty as a Greek town complete with the traditional set of …

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Greeks In Egypt

GREEKS IN EGYPT Greek contacts with Egypt had been frequent and varied before Alexander the Great conquered the country in 332 B.C., inaugurating the Hellenistic period of Egyptian history. As early as the times of the Sea Peoples and the Dark Ages of Greece Egypt experienced Greek invaders and raiders, but the country was not …

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