Linguistic

L* as a Secret Language: Social Functions of Early Coptic

L* as a Secret Language: Social Functions of Early Coptic Introduction The aim of the present chapter is to reconsider the use of Coptic as attested in the texts belonging to the Manichaean community in Kellis (Ismant al- Kharab, Dakhla Oasis). For this particular variety of Coptic, the siglum L* has been suggested by W-P. …

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Dictionaries

DICTIONARIES From the time when the Copts, like other nations or linguistic entities, felt the need to have at their disposal in writing the equivalents, exact or approximate, of the words of their language, attempts were made to compose modest lists of bilingual vocabulary; these may justly be considered the ancestors of modern Coptic dictionaries. …

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Metadialect

METADIALECT By common consent, the term “dialect” is used by Coptologists for those idioms whose originality, in relation to one another, is very strongly marked. The basis for judgment is, of course, on the lexical and morphosyntactical levels, but also and above all, using the most convenient and practical criterion, on the phonological level, through …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE This entry consists of four parts. The first addresses the origins and development of the Arabic literature of the Copts. This is followed by introductions to three Copto-Arabic literary genres—hagiography, apocalyptic, and popular catechesis—for which texts are usually of anonymous authorship, and therefore unlikely to be otherwise addressed in a dictionary arranged largely …

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Good Friday

GOOD FRIDAY The Friday before Easter and the anniversary of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Ibn Kabar’s description of the rites of Good Friday is as follows: the prayer of the first hour is performed according to the rite of the Passover with readings from the four gospels and the prophecies, followed by sermons that …

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Christodoulos (?-1077). Patriarch (66th, 1046-1077)

CHRISTODOULOS (?-1077). Patriarch (66th, 1046-1077) The importance of Christodoulos (a monk of the Monastery of al-Baramous before his consecration as patriarch) to the history of Copto-Arabic literature may be seen from two sides. First, the events of his turbulent patriarchate are recounted by Mawhub ibn Mansur ibn Mufarrij in the first of two biographies that …

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Psalis

PSALIS The psalis are hymns recited before the Odes and the Theotokia. The psalis could be sung with the Adam tune or with the Batos tune. There are several types of psalis. The first and most ancient type is the psalis “My Lord Jesus Christ” that could date prior to the eighth century. Some of …

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