John

ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB …

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AMEN

AMEN The lack of a common language has always been a barrier to the mutual knowledge and intercourse of the great nations of mankind, all the more that the days when the educated men of all European nations were wont to converse in Latin have long since passed away. To a certain extent the gulf …

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ALMS

ALMS The duty of kindliness to and provision for the poor is constantly taught in the OT; in the later Jewish literature, and especially in Sirach and Tobit, it is even more emphatically asserted. It is clear that our Lord and the Apostolic Church taught this as a religious obligation with equal force. In the …

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ALEXANDER (Ἀλέξανδρος, ‘helper of men’)

ALEXANDER (Ἀλέξανδρος, ‘helper of men’) This name is found in the NT in five different connexions, and possibly designates as many different individuals. The son of Simon of Cyrene, who bore the cross to Calvary (Mk 15:21), and the brother of Rufus. In all probability Alexander and his brother were well-known and honoured men in …

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AGED

AGED In Philem 9 the writer speaks of himself as Παῦλος πρεσβύτης (AV and RV ‘Paul the aged,’ RVm ‘ambassador’). In strictness the translation ‘ambassador’ requires πρεσβευτής, a word which does not occur in the NT. The two forms may have been confused in transcription or in common use. The translation ‘ambassador’ is more fitting …

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AGE

AGE The general significance of ‘age’ is a period of time, or a measure of life. Specially, it expresses the idea of advancement in life, or of oldness. Several Greek words are employed in NT for ‘age.’ (1) αἰών (see Æon). (2) γενεά, ‘a generation,’ loosely measured as extending from 30 to 33 years. In …

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ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’)

ÆON (αἰών, αἰῶνες, ‘age,’ ‘ages’) There is some uncertainty as to the derivation of the word αἰών. Some relate it with ἄημι, ‘to breathe,’ but modern opinion connects it with ἀεί, αἰεί (= αἰών), and finds as other derivatives the Latin œvum and the English ‘aye.’ In the LXX αἰών is used to translate עוֹלָם …

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ADOPTION

ADOPTION The term.—The custom of adopting children is explicitly alluded to by St. Paul alone of biblical writers; he uses the word ‘adoption’ (υἱοθεσία, Vulg. adoptio filiorum, Syr. usually sīmath benayā)) five times: Ro 8:15, 23; 9:4, Gal 4:5, Eph 1:5. This Greek word is not found in classical writers (though θετὸς υἱός is used …

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ACCESS

ACCESS This word in the Epistles of the NT is the translation of the Greek word προσαγωγή (Ro 5:2, Eph 2:18; 3:12; cf. 1 P 3:18, where the verb is used actively). It has been treated very thoroughly in DCG (s.v.). Here we shall confine ourselves to— The connotation of the word.—In classical Greek, the …

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