jizyah

Covenant Of ‘Umar

COVENANT OF ‘UMAR Ascribed to the second Orthodox caliph, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644), and regarded as a document of primary importance in regulating the relations between the Muslim conquerors of the Middle East and their Dhimmi subjects, that is, the Jews and the Christians, including the Coptic nation in Egypt. The situation of the Copts …

Covenant Of ‘Umar Read More »

Spoken Coptic Language

SPOKEN COPTIC LANGUAGE Coptic was the spoken language of ancient Egypt until the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century. It was recorded first in the hieroglyphic (sacred) script, the earliest form of Egyptian pictorial writing, and succeeded by the hieratic (priestly), which was the simplified running script, and the demotic (from “demos,” meaning …

Spoken Coptic Language Read More »

Copts And The Crusades

COPTS AND THE CRUSADES To understand the position of the Copts vis-à-vis the movement of the Crusading expeditions from the West against the Muslim Middle Eastern countries, one must go back to the time of the last ecumenical council of CHALCEDON in 451. The reason for this inquiry is to elucidate Coptic feelings toward those …

Copts And The Crusades Read More »

CYRIL II

CYRIL II The sixty-seventh patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (1078-1092). Cyril was a monk of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR), and his original name was George (Jirja). Nothing is known about his secular life or his date of birth beyond the fact that he was a native of the province …

CYRIL II Read More »

Arab Conquest Of Egypt

ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT The conquest, under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, was the last of the rapid series of victories in the years A.H. 13-19/A.D. 635-640 that had led the Arabs to overthrow the weakened Byzantine provinces of the Near East. The conquest of Egypt marked the virtual end of a rapid period of expansion, since …

Arab Conquest Of Egypt Read More »

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah

IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYAH (al-Salafi Shams al-Din Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub ibn Sa‘d ibn Hariz al-Zar‘i al-Dimashqi), fourteenth-century encyclopedia author. He was known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah since his father was the curator of the Jawziyyah School in Damascus. He was a Hanbalite. Though he received his training from numerous teachers, …

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah Read More »

Jizyah

JIZYAH A poll tax, or capitation tax, imposed on all able-bodied non-Muslim subjects of the Islamic state. It was required of Dhimmis (see AHL AL-DHIMMAH), who were Christians, Jews, and other monotheistic non-Muslims with a protected status. They were barred from enlisting in Islamic armies, and their poll tax was supposed to pay for Muslims …

Jizyah Read More »

kha’il I

KHA’IL I The forty-sixth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (744-767). Kha’il, or Michael, was a simple monk and presbyter of the Monastery of Saint Macarius (DAYR ANBA MAQAR) in WADI AL-NATRUN. When THEODORUS, his predecessor, died, the congregating bishops together with the clergy of Alexandria and the archons of the Coptic community selected …

kha’il I Read More »

Theodorus

THEODORUS The forty-fifth patriarch of the See of Saint Mark (731-743). Theodorus (Tawadrus) was a monk at Dayr Tamnurah on the fringe of Mareotis, west of Alexandria. The sources are silent about his early secular life as well as on the date and place of his birth and his activities before he took the monastic …

Theodorus Read More »