Coptic art in the Coptic museum

Coptic art in the Coptic museum Coptic art began to emerge in Egypt around 300 A.D. In form, style, and content it was quite different from the art of Pharaonic Egypt. How’ did this come about? Broadly speaking, there were two causes. The first is that indigenous Egyptian art had been in contact with the […]

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The churches of old cairo

The churches of old Cairo INTRODUCTION Cairo has been the capital of Egypt for more than one thousand years, but the actual city and history of Cairo are the legacy of many previous capitals of Egypt, of great cultural centers and successive civilizations founded there. The earliest was a predynastic settle­ment dating from the 4th […]

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The Titles of Jesus

The Titles of Jesus Jesus of Nazareth was given more titles than any other person in history. A brief sampling would include the following: Christ Lord Son of Man Savior Son of David Great High Priest Son of God Alpha & Omega Master Teacher Righteousness Prophet Rose of Sharon Lily of the Valley Advocate Lion […]

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Jesus Christ as the Only Begotten

Jesus Christ as the Only Begotten That the Bible refers to Jesus as “the only begotten of the Father” (John 1:14) has provoked great controversy in church history. Because Jesus is also called the “firstborn over all creation” (Colossians 1:15), it has been argued that the Bible teaches that Jesus is not divine, but an […]

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The Sinlessness of Christ

The Sinlessness of Christ When we speak of Christ’s sinlessness we generally refer to His humanity. It is unnecessary to plead the sinlessness of Christ’s deity, as deity by our definition cannot and does not sin. The doctrine of Christ’s sinlessness has been free of any fundamental controversy. Even the most crass heretics in history […]

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The Canon of Scripture

The Canon of Scripture We usually think of the Bible as one large book. In reality, it is a small library of sixty-six individual books. Together these books comprise what we call the canon of sacred Scripture. The term canon is derived from a Greek word that means “measuring rod,” “standard,” or “norm.” Historically, the […]

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The Prophets of God

The Prophets of God The prophets of the Old Testament were persons uniquely called of God and supernaturally given God’s messages to pass on to us. God spoke His word through the lips and writings of the prophets. Prophecy involved both future prediction ( foretelling) and present proclamation and exhortation of God’s word (forthtelling). The […]

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Copto-Arabic Studies Bibliography

COPTO-ARABIC STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHY General References (Referred to Below in Abbreviated Fashion) Atiya, Aziz Suryal, ed. The Coptic Encyclopedia, 8 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1991. A standard tool in English. (CE) Gibb, H. A. R. et al., eds. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., 11 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1954-. Some articles are of importance to Copto-Arabic […]

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John of Shmoun and Coptic Identity

John of Shmoun and Coptic Identity After the Council of Chalcedon in ad 451 and in particular after the Arab conquest of Egypt in ad 641, the need to demonstrate Coptic self­ identification became more important than before.[1] Usually, there is the need to stress one’s identity and define or form its features when one […]

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