Asarah be-Tevet

Asarah be-Tevet n. Hebrew (ah-sah-RAH bih-teh-VET) A minor fast day that falls on the 10th of Tevet. It commemorates the start of the siege of Jerusalem by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia in 586 b.c.e, which is considered the beginning of the destruction of the First Temple. On minor fast days, fasting begins at dawn and […]

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Ark of the Covenant

Ark of the Covenant n. English According to Exodus, the ancient chest built by Moses at God’s command to house the stone tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. According to legend, it was a gold box with two large angels on it. After King Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem, the Ark of the Covenant […]

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Antiochus IV, King

Antiochus IV, King (an-TIE-ah-cuss) A Syrian king who ruled Judea and ancient Israel from 175 to 163 b.c.e In his efforts to wipe out Judaism, Antiochus demanded intense Hellenization and forbade many Jewish practices, including circumcision and Sabbath observance. He desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem with animal sacrifices and statues of Greek gods. The Maccabees’ […]

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Akiva ben Joseph (50-135 c.e.)

Akiva ben Joseph (50-135 c.e.) A rabbi and talmudic scholar who was considered one of the greatest teachers of Judaism. According to legend, he was a shepherd who began his Jewish education late, at the age of 40, but his determination and love of learning proved him a natural scholar. He collected and arranged the […]

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Ahasuerus, King (ah-HOSH-vair-oash)

Ahasuerus, King (ah-HOSH-vair-oash) The ruler of ancient Persia (486-465 b.c.e) during the time of the Purim story. According to the Purim megillah, Ahasuerus was a foolish king who allowed his adviser, Haman, to hatch a plot against the Jews. Ahasuerus was first married to Queen Vashti. He later took a Jewish girl, Esther, as his […]

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ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος)

ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος) The word is found in the NT only in 1 Jn 2:18, 22; 4:3, 2 Jn 7, but the idea further appears in the Gospels, the Pauline Epistles, and above all in the Apocalypse. It is not, however, an idea original to Christianity, but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which, as Bousset has […]

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ANNAS (Gr. Ἄννας, Heb. הָנָן)

ANNAS (Gr. Ἄννας, Heb. הָנָן, ‘merciful’ [in Josephus, Ananos]) Annas the son of Sethi, appointed high priest by Quirinius in a.d. 6 or 7, retained office till he was deposed by Valerius Gratus in a.d. 15 (Jos. Ant. XVIII. ii. 1, 2). Josephus tells us that he was regarded as the most fortunate of men, […]

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ANGER

ANGER Human anger.—Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme, anger has been recognized as a quality which, under certain conditions and within certain limits, may not only be permissible but commendable. Its ready abuse has, however, led to its being commonly placed among the evils of […]

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ANGELS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES

ANGELS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES The general practice of NT writers points to the conclusion that the word ‘angels,’ used in this connexion, is employed to denote superhuman and celestial personalities. We are not, however, without examples of its being used to indicate ordinary ‘messengers’ (cf. Lk 7:24; 9:52, Ja 2:25, etc.). In this case […]

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ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB […]

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