James

ANGER

ANGER Human anger.—Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme, anger has been recognized as a quality which, under certain conditions and within certain limits, may not only be permissible but commendable. Its ready abuse has, however, led to its being commonly placed among the evils of …

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AMOMUM

AMOMUM (ἄμωμον, perhaps from Arab. hamma, ‘heat’) An aromatic balsam used as an unguent for the hair, made from the seeds of an eastern plant which has not been identified with certainty, Josephus (Ant. xx. ii. 2) speaks of Harran as ‘a soil which bare amomum in plenty,’ and Vergil (Ecl. iv. 25) predicts that …

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ALTAR

ALTAR In the NT, as in the LXX, the usual term for ‘altar’ is θυσιαστήριον—a word otherwise confined to Philo, Josephus, and ecclesiastical writers—while βωμός, as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice, is a heathen altar. The most striking example of the antithesis is found in 1 Mac 1:54–59. Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small …

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ALEXANDRIANS

ALEXANDRIANS Among the active opponents of St. Stephen were ‘certain of them that were of the synagogue called the synagogue … of the Alexandrians’ (Ἀλεξανδρέων, Ac 6:9). Grammatically the sentence is not in good form, and admits of a variety of interpretations. Some exegetes (Calvin, Bengel, O. Holtzmann, Rendall) assume that the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, …

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ALEXANDRIA (Ἀλεξάνδρια)

ALEXANDRIA (Ἀλεξάνδρια) The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great’s dream of ‘a city surpassing anything previously existing’ (Plutarch, Alex. xxvi.). Planned by Dinocrates under the king’s supervision, and built on a neck of land two miles wide interposed between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis (Mariut), about 14 miles from the Canopic mouth …

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ADRAMYTTIUM

ADRAMYTTIUM (Ἀδραμύττιον; in the NT only the adjective Ἀδραμυττηνός [Ac 27:2] is found; WH Ἀδραμυτηνός).—This flourishing seaport of Mysia was situated at the head of the Adramyttian Gulf, opposite the island of Lesbos, in the shelter of the southern side of Mt. Ida, after which the Gulf was also called the ‘Idæan.’ Its name and …

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ADAM (Ἀδάμ)

ADAM (Ἀδάμ) Adam was the first man (אָדָם = man) and the parent of the human race.—1. When the writer of Jude (v. 14) thinks it worth noting that Enoch (q.v.) was ‘the seventh from Adam’ (ἕβδομος ἀπὸ Ἀδάμ), he probably has in mind the sacredness of the number seven. It seems to him an …

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