Cyriacus

CYRIACUS A Bishop of al-Bahnasa (Oxyrhynchus), assumed author of eight homilies. We have no historical evidence of either the existence of this person or the period in which he lived. On the latter, opinions greatly diverge: G. Graf (1944-1953, Vol. 1, p. 475) thinks that if one accepts what is said by the Ethiopian Book […]

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Clysma

CLYSMA An ancient town a few miles north of modern-day Suez and known for its ruins. They were excavated by B. Bruyère (1966). The site (which some texts call the isle of Clysma) appears to have been inhabited by anchorites very early. It is not known exactly where these anchorites lived. The Mountain of Antony […]

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Jean Cledat

JEAN CLEDAT (Périgueux, France, 7 May 1872-Bouch [Dordogne], France, 29 July 1943), French Egyptologist and Coptologist. He acquired a solid grounding in Paris (including the Ecole des Beaux Arts) and, in 1898 and 1899, published his first studies in Egyptology and Coptology that dealt with both the texts and the archaeology. Clédat arrived in Egypt […]

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Christian Subjects In Coptic Art

CHRISTIAN SUBJECTS IN COPTIC ART Whatever its materials and techniques—stone or wood relief sculpture, painted walls or manuscripts, textiles, metalwork, ceramics, or glass—Coptic Christian iconography retained a few rare elements of pharaonic origin and many Greco-Roman elements from Alexandrian tradition. From the fifth century on, these pagan subjects mingled with Christian motifs. The Christian subjects […]

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Church Of Abu Sayfayn (Old Cairo)

CHURCH OF ABU SAYFAYN (Old Cairo) In the Arabic manuscripts this church is called “church of Abu Marqurah,” and in a Garshuni manuscript (Arabic written in Syriac characters) “church of Mar Quryus” (Mercurius). Two late Coptic manuscripts describe it thus: “Mercurius at the tetrapylon of the river.” Western travelers of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries […]

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Coptic Ceramics

COPTIC CERAMICS The pottery produced in Egypt from the late Roman to the early Islamic period. There must be no illusion about the term “Coptic ceramics.” The techniques of production were in the tradition of Hellenistic and Roman techniques. Similarly, there is no marked stylistic discontinuity between the products of the Roman period and those […]

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Months Of Coptic Calendar

MONTHS OF COPTIC CALENDAR Of all survivals from pharaonic Egypt, the calendar is the most striking. Each of the twelve months of the Coptic calendar still carries the name of one of the deities or feasts of ancient Egypt. Without doubt, this reflects the conservatism that characterizes the inhabitants of the Nile Valley, who are […]

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Cell

CELL The word cell is very common in monastic texts, but it does not always have the sense given it in Western languages. Because monks inhabited various places, such as tombs, caves, or constructed hermitages, it is necessary to distinguish between them. We find in Greek the words kella (derived from Latin) and its common […]

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Architectural Elements Of Churches -Index

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF CHURCHES -INDEX Aisle Ambulatory Apse Atrium Baptistery Cancelli Ceiling Choir Ciborium Coffer Colonnade Column Crypt Daraj al-haykal Diaconicon Dome Elements Gallery Horseshoe arch Iconostasis Khurus Maqsurah Naos Narthex Nave Niche Pastophorium Pillare Porche Presbytery Prothyrone Prothesise Return aisle Roofe Sacristy Saddleback roof Sanctuary Shaq al-haykal Sacristye Sanctuarye Synthronone Tetraconche Tribelone Triconche Triumphal […]

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Iconostasis – Architectural Elements Of Churches

Iconostasis An iconostasis is the screen or wall in a church that separates the sanctuary, presbytery, or bema, restricted to the clergy, from the naos, or area of the laity. It developed in the fourteenth century in Byzantine areas, earlier in Egypt. The Arab word for it is hijab, which literally means “curtains.” The spatial […]

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