Imperial period

Military Costume

MILITARY COSTUME Since the Copts lived under foreign occupation or domination, which reduced them to a tolerated community, one might think that military service would not be accessible to the Copts. Nevertheless, it is known that Saint PACHOMIUS served in the army for a time in the reign of Constantine, although he was soon discharged. …

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Architectural Elements Of Churches -Index

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF CHURCHES -INDEX Aisle Ambulatory Apse Atrium Baptistery Cancelli Ceiling Choir Ciborium Coffer Colonnade Column Crypt Daraj al-haykal Diaconicon Dome Elements Gallery Horseshoe arch Iconostasis Khurus Maqsurah Naos Narthex Nave Niche Pastophorium Pillare Porche Presbytery Prothyrone Prothesise Return aisle Roofe Sacristy Saddleback roof Sanctuary Shaq al-haykal Sacristye Sanctuarye Synthronone Tetraconche Tribelone Triconche Triumphal …

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Roman Emperors In Egypt

ROMAN EMPERORS IN EGYPT Although Alexandria never became a “Second Rome,” the existence and, in some sense, the presence of the Roman emperor was a common and permanent experience for the inhabitants of Egypt. The head of the provincial administration, the prefect of Egypt, was the direct representative of the emperor. The importance and power …

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Keep

KEEP (Arab., jawsaq), multistoried tower with defensive capabilities. It has strong walls and in most cases there is no entrance at ground level. The entrance lies at the second-floor level, and is reached by means of a drawbridge that can easily be taken in or drawn up into the keep when danger threatens. This accounts …

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Aswan

ASWAN (Syene) A town on the east bank of the Nile, at the position of the First Cataract, which in pharaonic times marked the borders of Egypt on the south. In the imperial period it was an administrative center and garrison town (Strabo Geographica 17.1.12), and from an early date (since A.D. 325; cf. Timm, …

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Dayr Al-‘Adhra’

DAYR AL-‘ADHRA’   Also called Dayr al-Bakarah, a monastery located near Jabal al-Tayr, a modern village on the east bank of the Nile in the domain of an old monastery that was inhabited by monks down to the end of the nineteenth century. The church belonging to it was accommodated in a rock tomb evidently …

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Coptic Portraiture

COPTIC PORTRAITURE The tradition of portraiture that developed in pharaonic Egypt and in Rome continued in Coptic Egypt among many other elements of pharaonic and classical art. Portraits were created in stone, in textiles, and especially in paint— on wood panels, on fabric, and on walls. Most of these were associated with funerary art. Portraiture …

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Papyrology

PAPYROLOGY The study of papyri chiefly from Egypt. This relatively new discipline is called Greek papyrology for the sake of clarity, although it tacitly includes the small number of Latin papyri also. The texts derive from the period from the second half of the fourth century B.C. to about the ninth century A.D. Because they …

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