Ignatius

ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB …

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ADORNING

ADORNING Simplicity of personal attire has been no infrequent accompaniment of moral and religious earnestness, even when not matter of prescription. Two passages of the NT (1 Ti 2:9, 10, 1 P 3:3, 4) warn Christian women against excessive display in dress, fashion of the hair (see the art. Hair), and use of ornaments, and …

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St. Mary’s Virginity

ST. MARY’S VIRGINITY Aaron’s rod, in fact, is Mary. It is a type of her virginity. She conceived and bore the Son of the Most High, the Word, without human seed. Theotokia[1] of Sunday. Biblical Reality The virginity of St. Mary is not a matter of her own private life, but rather a ‘biblical reality’, …

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Icon of the Virgin Mary and Child. Achmim area provenance. Photo­graph courtesy of Gawdat Gabra..

Toward an Understanding of the ‘Akhmim Style’ Icons and Ciboria: the Indigenous and the Foreign[1]

Toward an Understanding of the ‘Akhmim Style’ Icons and Ciboria: the Indigenous and the Foreign[1] THE LATE FOURTEENTH-century painting by Gherardo Starnina, La Tebaide in Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence, provides perhaps the last medieval visu­alized memory of the (ideal) Christian sacred landscape along the Nile in Upper Egypt, densely inhabited by hermits tending their …

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Apostolic Fathers

APOSTOLIC FATHERS Apostolic Fathers is a name given to a group of authors who came just after the Apostles, such as Clement of Rome. According to Origen and Eusebius, Clement was a disciple of St. Paul and was mentioned in the Epistle to the Philippians 4:3. Ireneaus noted that he was the third Bishop of …

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Eucharist

EUCHARIST This is considered as one of seven sacraments in the Coptic Church. The Coptic Church believes that in the Eucharist, the bread and wine are no longer mere bread and wine but become the true Body and Blood of the Redeemer, Jesus Christ as being the sacrifice of Christ for all humanity. The Eucharist …

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Coptic Hagiography

COPTIC HAGIOGRAPHY Egypt was influenced by the Greek culture, hence many of the hagiographical texts were written first in this language and translated later into Coptic. It is important to use the classical hagiographical tools such as Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis and the Bibliotheca Sanctorum (16 vols., Rome 1965-1976), in addition to the bibliography in each …

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Incarnation

INCARNATION The doctrine of incarnation—that God the Son took flesh and became man—is the central point of Christian theology. It is attested in the New Testament (John 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16). During the fourth century there was a great debate about the incarnation of Christ, especially after the Arian heresy. The Nicene Creed (325 a.d.) …

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