Idfu

Archives Of Papas

ARCHIVES OF PAPAS Papas, son of Liberius, was pagarch of Apollonos Ano (Idfu) from 703 to 714. The dossier of the correspondence sent to him, consisting of more than 100 Greek and a smaller number of Coptic (but no Arabic) documents, was found in 1921-1922 in a jar west of the southwest pylon of the …

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Archives

ARCHIVES There were already archives in Egypt in the pre-Christian period, according to Helck (1975). In Christian times, too, there were official and semiofficial Greek archives: those of soldiers, priests, manual workers, and other private individuals. An attempt to reassemble such archives was announced by Heichelheim in 1932. In these archives documents were preserved, in …

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Correspondence Of Bishops

CORRESPONDENCE OF BISHOPS The inhabitants of Christian Egypt reveal a delight in writing, so far as they were able to write. Many transactions, especially those of legal content, were fixed in written form. Among the papyri and ostraca found in numerous archives and deriving from the antiquities trade, there are letters from bishops to the …

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Archive Of Basilios

ARCHIVE OF BASILIOS The archive of Basilios, pagarch of Aphrodito in the time of Governor Qurrah ibn Sharik (698-722), is the largest and most notable of the collections of the early Arab period. Found at Kom Ishqaw in 1901, the papyri were acquired mainly by the British Museum, though substantial collections are in Paris (the …

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Annona

ANNONA A term for Egypt’s annual wheat crop during Roman times. A substantial part of the annona was destined to feed the people of Rome (annona civica, annona urbis). In economic terms, the contribution Egypt had to furnish after its conquest by the Romans in 30 B.C. was of paramount importance, as the shipments from …

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Hajir Idfu

HAJIR IDFU An important but little-known site lying about 2.5 miles (4 km) west of Idfu. Its importance for Egyptology has already been shown (Gabra, 1977). Moreover, it is not without interest for Coptology. The provenance of many Coptic manuscripts in the British Library, whose colophons bear dates from 981 to 1005, is known to …

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Persians In Egypt

PERSIANS IN EGYPT (619-629) The last great clash between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid empire (602-628), begun by Chosroes II Parvez (590-628) against Phocas (602-610) and continued against Heraclius (610-634), at first brought brilliant successes to the Sassanids. The culmination was the conquest of Egypt with its Byzantine administrative districts: Aegyptos, Augustamnike, Arkadia, …

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