Herodotus

ADOPTION

ADOPTION The term.—The custom of adopting children is explicitly alluded to by St. Paul alone of biblical writers; he uses the word ‘adoption’ (υἱοθεσία, Vulg. adoptio filiorum, Syr. usually sīmath benayā)) five times: Ro 8:15, 23; 9:4, Gal 4:5, Eph 1:5. This Greek word is not found in classical writers (though θετὸς υἱός is used …

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Shamm Al-Nasim

SHAMM AL-NASIM Literally, “sniffing the breeze.” It signifies the rising of the Egyptian people, Coptic as well as Muslim, at dawn to go to fields and gardens to inhale the pure air of the first day of spring, when the new vegetation is green and the Nile flood starts swelling. This is one of the …

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Coptic Toponymy

COPTIC TOPONYMY The study of ancient place-names is one of the most interesting domains of historical research, since the names of hamlets, villages, and towns of the past often give brief but valuable indications, usually absent from historical records, about the creation of those urban centers and the reasons for their founding, whether economic, political, …

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Romances

ROMANCES There are two Coptic romances: the Alexander Romance and the Cambyses Romance. The Alexander Romance All genres of literature—from history to poetry—include chronicles of the life of Alexander the Great of Macedonia (reigned 336-323 B.C.). The most widespread work, the Alexander Romance, is falsely ascribed to the Greek historian Callisthenes (c. 370-327 B.C.). In …

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Hermes Trismegistus (“Thrice-Greatest Hermes”)

HERMES TRISMEGISTUS (“Thrice-greatest Hermes”) This name is a Greek adaptation of an Egyptian title, Thoth the Very Great, the Egyptian god-name Thoth being translated from at least the time of Herodotus to the Greek Hermes. The literature associated with Hermes Trismegistus is known as the Corpus Hermeticum and comprises some seventeen writings of diverse origin …

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Coptic Textiles

COPTIC TEXTILES [Throughout their long history, Egyptians have practiced the art of weaving. The Coptic period has yielded enormous numbers of textiles displayed in many museums and private collections all over the world. These textiles have come mainly from archaeological excavations of burial grounds and akwam (mounds containing antique objects). The pieces attest a variety …

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Bastah

BASTAH A city located in the Eastern Delta just south of al-Zaqaziq in the province of Sharqiyyah. In Egyptian the city was known as Per-Bastet (the domain of Bastet, the lion goddess). A powerful political center, Bastah provided the kings of the Twenty-second Dynasty (945-712 B.C.) and served as the capital of the eighteenth Lower …

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Bahij

BAHIJ A small village inhabited solely by bedouins, with a weekly market. It is located west of Alexandria (the last railway station before Burj al-‘Arab) on the south shore of Lake Maryut. The mounds of debris north of Bahij (Kom Bahij) contain ceramics of the Late Period. Possibly this is to be identified with the …

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