Harit Zuwaylah

Coptic Woodwork

COPTIC WOODWORK The functional objects and sculpture made of wood in Egypt from the fourth century into the Middle Ages. By virtue of its geological past, Egypt originally had plentiful and varied supplies of wood, but it was rapidly used. Shortages were already evident in the pharaonic period. Ptolemaic rulers put into operation a policy …

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Copto-Arabic Literature

COPTO-ARABIC LITERATURE Coptic literature per se, a subject treated elsewhere, is confined to the writings in the Coptic language during the early centuries of medieval Egyptian history when that language was the spoken language of the people as well as their only written instrument. After the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT in the seventh century, the …

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Blessing

BLESSING Jesus Christ blessed with both hands, when he took the children in his arms, laying his hands upon them (Mk. 10:16); when he ascended into heaven, he lifted up his hands and blessed the apostles (Lk. 24:50, 51). The apostolic traditions are silent about a particular manner with which Jesus Christ blessed the people. …

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Babylon

BABYLON The oldest part of the city of Cairo. Babylon is situated on the east bank of the Nile, to some extent on the border between Upper and Lower Egypt. The same spot marks the mouth of a canal, originally cut about 600 B.C., which connected the Nile to the Red Sea. The city was …

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Al-Alam Salib Al-Ibnasi

AL-ALAM SALIB AL-IBNASI Shaykh al-‘Alam is known from two colophons of Coptic Arabic manuscripts that are kept at the Vatican and London. They describe him as a deacon and archon (prominent citizen) who was very generous and devout, practicing hospitality to strangers, and educating orphans. He was the son of the deacon and archon al-MAKIN …

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Ambo

AMBO Derived from the Greek word ¥mbwn, ambon, the ambo (Arabic, anbil) is a raised pulpit that stands at the northeast side of the nave. It is built of white or colored marble, stone, or wood, supported on pillars, and is reached by a staircase. It is sometimes carved with crosses and flowers, finely sculptured …

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Dayr Al-Muharraq

DAYR AL-MUHARRAQ الدير المحرق Nothing is known for certain about the date of the foundation of this monastery. A sermon attributed to the patriarch THEOPHILUS OF ALEXANDRIA (384-412) credits him with a vision of the Holy Virgin in which she revealed to him that the principal church of the monastery in the place where Mary …

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